Effects of complexing agents on electrochemical deposition of FeS x O y in ZnO/FeS x O y heterostructures
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Heterostructures which consist of ZnO and FeS x O y were deposited via electrochemical deposition (ECD) for application to solar cells. Galvanostatic ECD was used in FeS x O y deposition with a solution containing 100 mM Na2S2O3 and 30 mM FeSO4. To alter the film properties, L(+)-tartaric acid (C4H6O6) and lactic acid [CH3CH(OH)COOH] were introduced as the complexing agents into the FeS x O y deposition solution. Larger film thickness and smaller oxygen content were obtained for the films deposited with the complexing agents. ZnO was deposited on FeS x O y by two-step pulse ECD from a solution containing Zn(NO3)2. For the ZnO/FeS x O y heterostructures fabricated with/without complexing agents, rectifying properties were confirmed in the current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics. However, photovoltaic properties were not improved with addition of both complexing agents.