Electronic properties of dislocations
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Dislocations exhibit a number of exceptional electronic properties resulting in a significant increase in the drain current of MOSFETs if defined numbers of these defects are placed in the channel. Measurements on individual dislocations in Si refer to a supermetallic conductivity. A model of the electronic structure of dislocations is proposed based on experimental measurements and tight-binding simulations. It is shown that the high strain level on the dislocation core—exceeding 10 % or more—causes locally dramatic changes in the band structure and results in the formation of a quantum well along the dislocation line. This explains experimental findings (two-dimensional electron gas, single-electron transitions). The energy quantization within the quantum well is most important for supermetallic conductivity.
KeywordsTensile Strain Screw Dislocation Drain Current Quantum Wire Dislocation Core
Dislocations are one-dimensional crystal defects influencing many of the physical and mechanical properties of crystalline solids [1, 2]. The analysis of their electronic properties is of particular interest for semiconductor devices because dislocations detrimentally effect device parameters. This was proved, for instance, by electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) method [2, 3]. Detailed investigations by various experimental techniques [Hall effect, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence] revealed numerous deep and shallow defect levels in the gap of Si related to dislocations [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Because most of the investigations in the past were carried out on deformed silicon, it is not clear which of the defect levels are related to the dislocation core, or to interactions with point defects in the strain field surrounding a dislocation . Measurements on two-dimensional dislocation networks produced by wafer direct bonding avoid these interactions. Recently published DLTS data refer also to different deep and shallow levels in p- and n-type Si [9, 10]. Their existence depends on the dislocation density. Shallow levels having activation energies of about 0.1 eV are discussed as possible reasons of radiative recombination (D1 luminescence) , while an interpretation of deep levels, related to the dislocation core, is still missing. Depending on defect formation, the energies of deep levels spread over a large energy range in the gap .
Dislocations also cause a significant increase in the drain current (I D) of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) if well-defined numbers of parallel dislocations are placed in the channel . The largest increase in I D is obtained for a single dislocation . In p-type silicon dislocations form channels for electrons with supermetallic conductivity which is about eight orders of magnitude higher than of the surrounding Si matrix . This exceptional property and their dimension (length of a few micrometers and a cross-sectional area of the defect core of about 1 nm2) characterize dislocations as native nanowires embedded in a perfect crystalline matrix.
In a previous paper, we expect that a reason of the supermetallic behavior is the high strain ε in the dislocation core, which exceeds ε ≅ 10 % or more resulting in local modifications of the band structure and carrier mobility . The present paper presents an experimental and theoretical description of the electronic properties of dislocations based on the strain in the dislocation core. This allows us to explain the supermetallic behavior as well as deep levels proved by DLTS. Selected results of experimental measurements of electrical properties of dislocations and of local strain fields present Chapter 3. Computer simulations of the band structure using tight-binding and k·p models are discussed in Chapter 4. A model of the electronic structure of a dislocation is proposed in Chapter 5.
The technique to realize defined two-dimensional arrays of dislocations in thin layers (semiconductor wafer direct bonding) was described elsewhere [13, 14]. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers (diameter 150 nm, buried oxide (BOX) thickness 60 nm, device layer thickness 30 nm) were applied for the wafer bonding process under hydrophobic conditions. One of the handle wafers was removed after bonding resulting in a new SOI wafer having a device layer thickness of 60 nm and a two-dimensional dislocation network in the middle. SOI MOSFETs and pn-diodes were prepared on such substrates (for details see ). Electrical measurements of device parameters were carried out in the temperature range from 300 to 3 K.
The defect structure was analyzed by applying a probe C S corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (FEI Titan 80–300). Local strain fields are quantified by peak-pairs analysis (PPA) of high-resolution electron microscope images.
All simulations of the band structure were performed by application of the nextnano3 simulation package . The bulk band structure was calculated using both a 6- and 8-band k·p model, as well as an empirical sp 3 d 5 s* tight-binding model  taking into account strain and deformation potentials.
3 Experimental evaluation
3.1 Electrical measurements
The increase in the drain current for nMOSFETs results from an increased electron transport along dislocations. On the other hand, an increase in I DS exists also for pMOSFETs where holes are involved in the carrier transport along dislocations. This means that depending on the properties of the surrounding material (p- or n-type), dislocations transport either electrons or holes. The dislocation core is occupied by electrons in p-type material and by holes in n-type material. This is in contrast to the basic model of electronic states on dislocations  assuming holes on the core of a dislocation in p-type material surrounded by the so-called Read cylinder of ionized (negatively charged) acceptor atoms.
3.2 Electron microscopy
4 Band structure
5 Model of the electronic structure of dislocations
The interpretation of dislocations as quantum wires explains most of the experimental results. The presence of SdH oscillations refers to a 2DEG if two-dimensional dislocation networks exist in the channel of MOSFETs (Fig. 2). Because a network is formed by periodically spaced dislocations, the 2DEG represents a two-dimensional set of one-dimensional electron gases (1DEG). Moreover, the energy quantization is related to the presence of Coulomb blockades proved by low-temperature measurements. The model of dislocations as quantum wires bears similarities to the previously published shallow band model, which, however, assumes 1D-bands about 50–100 meV below the conduction and above the valence band, respectively [8, 36, 37]. Deeper defect-induced states of minority or majority carriers proved by DLTS [6, 11, 38] are not considered therein, but are explainable on the basis of the quantum wire model. If atomic defects on the dislocation core are taken into account (kinks, jogs, etc. ) then local changes in strain along the dislocation line exist modifying locally the band structure and consequently the quantum wire. Therefore, a broad defect line appears in the DLTS spectrum.
An analogous discussion of the formation of quantum wells by dislocation-induced compressive strain appears also possible which, however, is based on the primary indirect transition between Γ and Δ.
Detrimental effects on electronic parameters have been stated for dislocations if they are randomly placed in active areas of semiconductor devices. Presented experimental data, however, show a significant increase in device performance (especially of the drain current), if defined numbers and types of pure dislocations are placed in the channel of MOSFETs and directly connected to source and drain. The drain current enhancement is induced by exceptional electronic properties of dislocations, namely by supermetallic conductivity.
The presented model of the electronic properties of dislocations is based on the high strain in the defect core. It is shown that the high strain level on the dislocation core in the order of 10 % or more modifies the electronic band structure resulting in the formation of a quantum wire inside the silicon channel. The lateral size of the quantum wire is effected by the core diameter of the dislocation and is in the order of a few nanometers. The formation of the quantum wire forces carrier confinement along the dislocation line and generates a 1DEG. Most important for the exceptional properties is the energy quantization instead of the effective mass. Assuming, for instance, a wire radius R = 2.5 nm, the lowest energy level is E 1 = 38.4 meV (Eq. 5) which corresponds to experimentally measured distances of Coulomb blockades .
The utilization of the exceptional electronic properties of dislocations enables new concepts in development of future device generations. The main advantages in integration of defined numbers and types of dislocations are (1) further application of silicon-based CMOS processes below 10 nm feature size, (2) easy production processes of dislocation arrangements also in very thin SOI layers, (3) their thermal stability over process steps, and (4) the use of native nanostructures without improved lithography and additional non-silicon materials.
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