Analysis of defects patterned by femtosecond pulses inside KBr and SiO2 glass
- 305 Downloads
Colour centres in KBr and defects in silica glass were formed by focused femtosecond laser pulses. It is shown that under simple laser exposure, KBr develops a similar colouration as that achieved with electron and ion bombardment or high-energy X-ray irradiation. The three-dimensional (3D) character of direct laser writing in the volume of KBr allows a new level of control in the spatial arrangement of colour centres and defects. Five different colour centres were identified in KBr through the absorption spectrum; they have different charge and vacancy distribution configurations. The densities of the V- and F-centres were estimated to be 3.9 × 1019 and 3.4 × 1019 cm−3 using Smakula’s formula. In silica, a high density of paramagnetic E′ centres ~1.9 × 1020 cm−3 was determined by quantitative electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Birefringence due to colour centres and laser-induced defects was measured using Stokes polarimetry. In the case of colour centres in KBr, retardation in excess of 0.05\(\pi\) was determined throughout the visible spectrum from 400 to 800 nm. The use of polariscopy for analysis of high-pressure and high-temperature phase formation induced by 3D laser structuring is discussed.
KeywordsElectron Spin Resonance Colour Centre Indigo Blue Critical Plasma Density Front Tilt
SJ is grateful for partial support via the Australian Research Council Discovery Project DP130101205 and fs-laser fabrication set-up via a technology transfer project with Altechna Ltd.
- 3.A. Gleason, C. Bolme, H. Lee, B. Nagler, E. Galtier, D. Milathianaki, J. Hawreliak, R. Kraus, J. Eggert, D. Fratanduono, G. Collins, R. Sandberg, W. Yang, W. Mao, Ultrafast visualization of crystallization and grain growth in shock-compressed SiO2. Nat. Commun. 6, 8191 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.L.B. Fletcher, H.J. Lee, T. Döppner, E. Galtier, B. Nagler, P. Heimann, C. Fortmann, S. LePape, T. Ma, M. Millot, A. Pak, D. Turnbull, D.A. Chapman, D.O. Gericke, J. Vorberger, T. White, G. Gregori, M. Wei, B. Barbrel, R.W. Falcone, C.-C. Kao, H. Nuhn, J. Welch, U. Zastrau, P. Neumayer, J.B. Hastings, S.H. Glenzer, Ultrabright X-ray laser scattering for dynamic warm dense matter physics. Nat. Photonics 9, 274–279 (2015)ADSGoogle Scholar
- 40.S. Juodkazis, Optical properties of femtosecond irradiated photo-thermo-refractive glass. Lith. J. Phys. 42(2), 119–126 (2002)Google Scholar
- 57.K. Rademaker, Rare Earth-Doped Alkali-Lead-Halide Laser Crystals of Low-phonon Energy (Cuvillier Verlag, Goettingen, 2005)Google Scholar
- 58.M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, Rare-Earth-Doped Low Phonon Energy Halide Crystals for Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, in Solid State Lasers, ed. by A. Al-Khursan (Intechopen, 2012)Google Scholar