Applied Physics A

, 123:72 | Cite as

The comparative study of four Portuguese sixteenth-century illuminated Manueline Charters based on spectroscopy and chemometrics analysis

  • Catarina MiguelEmail author
  • Cristina Barrocas-Dias
  • Teresa Ferreira
  • António Candeias
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Innovation in Art Research and Technology


The comparative study based on spectroscopic analysis of the materials used to produce four sixteenth-century Manueline Charters (the Charters of Alcochete, Terena, Alandroal and Évora) was performed following a systematic analytical approach. SEM–EDS, μ-Raman and μ-FTIR analysis highlighted interesting features between them, namely the use of different pigments and colourants (such as different green and yellow pigments), the presence of pigments alterations and the use of a non-expected extemporaneous material (with the presence of titanium white in the Charter of Alcochete). Principal component analysis restricted to the C–H absorption region (3000–2840 cm−1) was applied to 36 infrared spectra of blue historical samples from the Charters of Alcochete, Terena, Alandroal and Évora, suggesting the use of a mixture of a triglyceride and polysaccharide as binder.


Blue Paint Green Paint Cochineal Methyl Indole Brochantite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was financially supported by UID/Multi/04449/2013 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007649) project. Catarina Miguel thanks the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia for financial support under grant SFRH/BPD/92865/2013. The authors would like to acknowledge Ana Manhita from HERCULES Lab for the preliminary Py-GC/MS results and to Câmara Municipal de Alcochete, Câmara Municipal do Alandroal and Câmara Municipal de Évora for the study of the Charters.

Supplementary material

339_2016_659_MOESM1_ESM.docx (7.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 7275 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HERCULES Laboratory, Institute for Advanced Studies and ResearchUniversidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal
  2. 2.Chemistry Department, School of Sciences and TechnologyUniversidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal

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