Applied Physics A

, Volume 118, Issue 4, pp 1239–1246 | Cite as

Controlling ZnO nanowire surface density during its growth by altering morphological properties of a ZnO buffer layer by UV laser irradiation

  • Tetsuya Shimogaki
  • Hirotaka Kawahara
  • Shihomi Nakao
  • Mitsuhiro Higashihata
  • Hiroshi Ikenoue
  • Yoshiki Nakata
  • Daisuke Nakamura
  • Tatsuo Okada


Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals, which are characterized by their configurations and fine structures, are unique oxide semiconductors. In this report, it is demonstrated that the number density of ZnO nanowires can be controlled by proper treatments of the buffer layer with ultraviolet laser irradiation. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on the locally laser-irradiated ZnO buffer layer using nanoparticle-assisted pulsed-laser deposition (NAPLD). The number density of ZnO nanowires decreased in the region laser-irradiated with <300 mJ/cm2, whereas it increased in the region laser-irradiated with more than 400 mJ/cm2. Effects of laser irradiation on ZnO buffer layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. In particular, the effects of laser irradiation on the surface work functions of ZnO buffer layers were investigated by KPFM, which is reported for the first time. Additionally, periodically aligned ZnO sub-microcrystals were fabricated as an application of controlling the number density of ZnO nanowires on micropatterned ZnO buffer layers using the four-beam interfered third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser followed by NAPLD. ZnO sub-microcrystals can be used to fabricate field emitter arrays and can be developed for the application of ZnO nano/microcrystals due to their high throughput.


Laser Irradiation Work Function Laser Fluence Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Lower Work Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Zinc oxide




Light emitting diode


Laser diode


Pulsed-laser deposition


Nanoparticle-assisted pulsed-laser deposition


Scanning electron microscopy


Atomic force microscopy


Kelvin probe force microscopy


Root mean square


X-ray diffraction



The measurements of Raman and XRD analyses were performed at the Center of Advanced Instrumental Analysis, Kyushu University. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, No. 25286071).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tetsuya Shimogaki
    • 1
  • Hirotaka Kawahara
    • 1
  • Shihomi Nakao
    • 1
  • Mitsuhiro Higashihata
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Ikenoue
    • 1
  • Yoshiki Nakata
    • 2
  • Daisuke Nakamura
    • 1
  • Tatsuo Okada
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information Science and Electrical EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Laser EngineeringOsaka UniversitySuitaJapan

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