Focused-electron-beam-induced processing (FEBIP) for emerging applications in carbon nanoelectronics
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Focused-electron-beam-induced processing (FEBIP), a resist-free additive nanomanufacturing technique, is an actively researched method for “direct-write” processing of a wide range of structural and functional nanomaterials, with high degree of spatial and time-domain control. This article attempts to critically assess the FEBIP capabilities and unique value proposition in the context of processing of electronics materials, with a particular emphasis on emerging carbon (i.e., based on graphene and carbon nanotubes) devices and interconnect structures. One of the major hurdles in advancing the carbon-based electronic materials and device fabrication is a disjoint nature of various processing steps involved in making a functional device from the precursor graphene/CNT materials. Not only this multi-step sequence severely limits the throughput and increases the cost, but also dramatically reduces the processing reproducibility and negatively impacts the quality because of possible between-the-step contamination, especially for impurity-susceptible materials such as graphene. The FEBIP provides a unique opportunity to address many challenges of carbon nanoelectronics, especially when it is employed as part of an integrated processing environment based on multiple “beams” of energetic particles, including electrons, photons, and molecules. This avenue is promising from the applications’ prospective, as such a multi-functional (electron/photon/molecule beam) enables one to define shapes (patterning), form structures (deposition/etching), and modify (cleaning/doping/annealing) properties with locally resolved control on nanoscale using the same tool without ever changing the processing environment. It thus will have a direct positive impact on enhancing functionality, improving quality and reducing fabrication costs for electronic devices, based on both conventional CMOS and emerging carbon (CNT/graphene) materials.
KeywordsContact Resistance Amorphous Carbon Metal Electrode Device Structure Contact Resistivity
This material is based on work supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporation under GRC Contract Nos. 2008-OJ-1864 and 2011-OJ-2221 (FEBIP of CNT and graphene interconnects), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research BIONIC Center under Award No. FA9550-09-1-0162 (FEBIP for graphene surface modification), the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE-SC0010729 (energetic-gas-jet FEBIP) and the National Science Foundation under Award No. DMI-0403671 (FEBID-MaCE for hierarchical silicon nanostructures). CVD grown graphene samples used in this work were provided the Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (S. Kim, S. Pacley and A. Voevodin). Collaboration with K. Rykaczewski and O. Hildreth on FEBID-MaCE is appreciated. We also thank K. Rykaczewski for his early contributions and experimental assistance with FEBID of CNT interconnects. Insightful discussions and guidance by R. Caudillo (Intel) and A. Chen (Global Foundries) on electrical characterization of graphene-based electronic devices are appreciated.
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