Applied Physics A

, Volume 111, Issue 4, pp 983–995

High-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging of paint microstructure by synchrotron-based X-ray laminography

  • Péter Reischig
  • Lukas Helfen
  • Arie Wallert
  • Tilo Baumbach
  • Joris Dik
Invited paper

Abstract

The characterisation of the microstructure and micromechanical behaviour of paint is key to a range of problems related to the conservation or technical art history of paintings. Synchrotron-based X-ray laminography is demonstrated in this paper to image the local sub-surface microstructure in paintings in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Based on absorption and phase contrast, the method can provide high-resolution 3D maps of the paint stratigraphy, including the substrate, and visualise small features, such as pigment particles, voids, cracks, wood cells, canvas fibres etc. Reconstructions may be indicative of local density or chemical composition due to increased attenuation of X-rays by elements of higher atomic number. The paint layers and their interfaces can be distinguished via variations in morphology or composition. Results of feasibility tests on a painting mockup (oak panel, chalk ground, vermilion and lead white paint) are shown, where lateral and depth resolution of up to a few micrometres is demonstrated. The method is well adapted to study the temporal evolution of the stratigraphy in test specimens and offers an alternative to destructive sampling of original works of art.

Supplementary material

339_2013_7687_MOESM1_ESM.mpg (15.9 mb)
(MPG 15.9 MB)
339_2013_7687_MOESM2_ESM.mpg (24.2 mb)
(MPG 24.2 MB)
339_2013_7687_MOESM3_ESM.mpg (11 mb)
(MPG 11.0 MB)
339_2013_7687_MOESM4_ESM.mpg (12.5 mb)
(MPG 12.5 MB)
339_2013_7687_MOESM5_ESM.mpg (13.3 mb)
(MPG 13.3 MB)
339_2013_7687_MOESM6_ESM.mpg (11.8 mb)
(MPG 11.8 MB)

References

  1. 1.
    J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, M. Cotte, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tyminska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, E.A. Kwiatkowska, Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 826 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Cotte, E. Checroun, J. Susini, P. Walter, Appl. Phys. A 89, 841 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Janssens, J. Dik, M. Cotte, J. Susini, Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 814 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Van der Snickt, K. Janssens, J. Dik, W. De Nolf, F. Vanmeert, J. Jaroszewicz, M. Cotte, G. Falkenberg, L. Van der Loeff, Anal. Chem. (2012). doi:10.1021/ac3015627 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.-M. Popescu, Y. Sakata, M.-C. Popescu, A. Osaka, C. Vasile, e-Preserv. Sci. 2, 19 (2005) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Bucklow, Stud. Conserv. 44, 233 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Young, Interfacial interactions of modern paint layers, in Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings from the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. by T.J.S. Learner, P. Smithen, J.W. Krueger, M.R. Schilling. Getty Conservation Institute Symposium Proceedings Series (Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2007), pp. 247–256. ISBN 978-0-89236-906-5, 0-89236-906-X Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.A. Berger, W.H. Russell, Stud. Conserv. 39, 73 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E.W.S. Hagan, M.N. Charalambides, C.T. Young, T.J.S. Learner, S. Hackney, Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 13, 149 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P.-B. Eipper, G. Frankowski, Cleaning of painted surfaces and examination of cleaning by 3D-measurement technology at the August Deusser museum, Zurzach, in Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks, LACONA VI Proceedings, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 21–25, 2005, ed. by J. Nimmrichter, W. Kautek, M. Schreiner. Springer Proceedings in Physics, vol. 116 (2007), pp. 473–486. XXVI, 650 p. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Young, R. Ackroyd, R. Hibberd, S. Gritt, Natl. Gallery Tech. Bull. 23, 83 (2002) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M.F. Mecklenburg, L. Fuster Lopez, in Proc. Third Int. Conf. Color and Conservation, Milan, Italy, 2006 (CESMAR7, Verona, 2008), pp. 49–58 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. Khandekar, Rev. Conserv. 4, 52 (2003) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Latour, Doctoral thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 2007 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E.S.B. Ferreira, J.J. Boon, J. van der Horst, N.C. Scherrer, F. Marone, M. Stampanoni, Proc. SPIE 7391, 03A (2009). doi:10.1117/12.827511 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Labaune, J.B. Jackson, S. Pagès-Camagna, I.N. Duling, M. Menu, G.A. Mourou, Appl. Phys. A (2010). doi:10.1007/s00339-010-5693-1 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, J. Phys. D 29, 133 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. Van Dyck, J. Van Landuyt, J.P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2912 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.R. Woll, J. Mass, C. Bisulca, M. Cushi-Nan, C. Griggs, T. Wanzy, N. Ocon, Stud. Conserv. 53, 93 (2008) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Tsuji, K. Nakano, Anal. Chem. 84, 636 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. de Viguerie, P. Walter, E. Laval, B. Mottin, V.A. Solé, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 1 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.T. Dobbins, D.J. Godfrey, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 65 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Xu, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, H. Suhonen, Opt. Express 20, 794 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Helfen, A. Myagotin, P. Pernot, M. DiMichiel, P. Mikulík, A. Berthold, T. Baumbach, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 563, 163 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. Altapova, L. Helfen, A. Myagotin, D. Hänschke, J. Moosmann, J. Gunneweg, T. Baumbach, Opt. Express 20, 6496 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Houssaye, F. Xu, L. Helfen, V. De Buffrénil, T. Baumbach, P. Tafforeau, J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 31, 2 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T.F. Morgeneyer, L. Helfen, I. Sinclair, H. Proudhon, F. Xu, T. Baumbach, Scr. Mater. 65, 1010 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.J. Moffat, P. Wright, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, G. Johnson, S.M. Spearing, I. Sinclair, Scr. Mater. 62, 97 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    F. Xu, L. Helfen, A.J. Moffat, G. Johnson, I. Sinclair, T. Baumbach, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17, 222 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Dik, P. Reischig, K. Krug, A. Wallert, A. Coerdt, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, J. Am. Inst. Conserv. 48, 185 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, P. Reischig, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Helfen, A. Myagotin, P. Mikulík, P. Pernot, A. Voropaev, M. Elyyan, M. Di Michiel, J. Baruchel, T. Baumbach, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063702 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, P. Mikulík, D. Kiel, P. Pernot, P. Cloetens, J. Baruchel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071915 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, P. Cloetens, J. Baruchel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 104103 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D. Hänschke, M.Sc. thesis, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2010 Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    T. Weitkamp, P. Tafforeau, E. Boller, P. Cloetens, J.-P. Valade, P. Bernard, F. Peyrin, W. Ludwig, L. Helfen, J. Baruchel, AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 1 (2009) Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Grodzins, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 206, 541 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    W. De Nolf, J. Dik, G. Van der Snickt, A. Wallert, K. Janssens, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 910 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    T.F. Morgeneyer, L. Helfen, H. Mubarak, F. Hild, Exp. Mech. 53, 543 (2013). doi:10.1007/s11340-012-9660-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Péter Reischig
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lukas Helfen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Arie Wallert
    • 4
  • Tilo Baumbach
    • 1
  • Joris Dik
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron RadiationKarlsruhe Institute of TechnologyEggenstein-LeopoldshafenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.European Synchrotron Radiation FacilityGrenoble CedexFrance
  4. 4.RijksmuseumAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations