Advertisement

Applied Physics A

, Volume 109, Issue 4, pp 789–796 | Cite as

High performance diffraction gratings made by e-beam lithography

  • Uwe D. Zeitner
  • Maria Oliva
  • Frank Fuchs
  • Dirk Michaelis
  • Tino Benkenstein
  • Torsten Harzendorf
  • Ernst-Bernhard Kley
Article

Abstract

Gratings are essential components in different high performance optical set-ups such as spectrometers in space missions or ultrashort-pulse laser compression arrangements. Often such kinds of applications require gratings operating close to the technological accessible limits of today’s fabrication technology. Typical critical parameters are the diffraction efficiency and its polarization dependency, the wave-front error introduced by the grating, and the stray-light performance. Additionally, space applications have specific environmental requirements and laser application typically demand a high damage threshold. All these properties need to be controlled precisely on rather large grating areas. Grating sizes of 200 mm or even above are not unusual anymore. The paper provides a review on how such high performance gratings can be realized by electron-beam lithography and accompanying technologies. The approaches are demonstrated by different examples. The first example is the design and fabrication of the grating for the Radial-Velocity-Spectrometer of the GAIA-mission of the ESA. The second grating is a reflective pulse compression element with no wavelength resonances due to an optimized design. The last example shows a three level blazed grating in resonance domain with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 86 %.

Keywords

Diffraction Efficiency Effective Refractive Index Merit Function Electron Beam Lithography Grating Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors like to thank their colleagues from the CMN-Optics of the Fraunhofer IOF and the IAP of the FSU-Jena for their contributions to the realization of the gratings. All gratings exposures presented here were done using the e-beam writer SB350 OS at the Fraunhofer IOF whose purchase has been supported by the European Union (FZK: B 408—04004). Parts of the technology development presented here where supported by the German Ministry of Science and Education in the frame of the project PhoNa (FZK: 03IS2101D).

References

  1. 1.
    M.B. Stern, Binary optics fabrication, in Microoptics: Elements, Systems, and Applications, ed. by H.P. Herzig (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, U.D. Zeitner, Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain. Opt. Lett. 35, 2774–2776 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Oliva, T. Harzendorf, D. Michaelis, U.D. Zeitner, A. Tünnermann, Multilevel blazed gratings in resonance domain: an alternative to the classical fabrication approach. Opt. Express 19, 14735–14745 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    W. Stork, N. Streibl, H. Heidner, P. Kipfer, Artificial distributed-index media fabricated by zero-order gratings. Opt. Lett. 16(24), 1921–1923 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Lalanne, S. Astilean, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, H. Launois, Blazed binary subwavelength gratings with efficiencies larger than those of conventional échelette gratings. Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1081–1083 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.-P. Wang, Y.-X. Jin, J.-Y. Ma, J.D. Shao, Z.-X. Fan, Analysis of restriction factors of widening diffraction bandwidth of multilayer dielectric grating. Chin. Phys. B 19, 104201-8 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    U.D. Zeitner, D. Michaelis, E.-B. Kley, M. Erdmann, High performance gratings for space applications. Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161K (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, Parametric optimization of multilevel diffractive optical elements by electromagnetic theory. Appl. Opt. 31(28), 5910–5912 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, U.D. Zeitner, Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain. Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uwe D. Zeitner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Oliva
    • 1
  • Frank Fuchs
    • 1
  • Dirk Michaelis
    • 1
  • Tino Benkenstein
    • 1
  • Torsten Harzendorf
    • 1
  • Ernst-Bernhard Kley
    • 2
  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics & Precision EngineeringJenaGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Applied PhysicsFriedrich-Schiller-University JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations