Applied Physics A

, Volume 106, Issue 2, pp 325–338 | Cite as

A deep view in cultural heritage—confocal micro X-ray spectroscopy for depth resolved elemental analysis

  • B. Kanngießer
  • W. Malzer
  • I. Mantouvalou
  • D. Sokaras
  • A. G. Karydas
Invited paper


Quantitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) techniques have been developed mostly for the elemental analysis of homogeneous bulk or very simple layered materials. Further on, the microprobe version of both techniques is applied for 2D elemental mapping of surface heterogeneities. At typical XRF/PIXE fixed geometries and exciting energies (15–25 keV and 2–3 MeV, respectively), the analytical signal (characteristic X-ray radiation) emanates from a variable but rather extended depth within the analyzed material, according to the exciting probe energy, set-up geometry, specimen matrix composition and analyte. Consequently, the in-depth resolution offered by XRF and PIXE techniques is rather limited for the characterization of materials with micrometer-scale stratigraphy or 3D heterogeneous structures. This difficulty has been over-passed to some extent in the case of an X-ray or charged particle microprobe by creating the so-called confocal geometry. The field of view of the X-ray spectrometer is spatially restricted by a polycapillary X-ray lens within a sensitive microvolume formed by the two inter-sectioned focal regions. The precise scanning of the analyzed specimen through the confocal microvolume results in depth-sensitive measurements, whereas the additional 2D scanning microprobe possibilities render to element-specific 3D spatial resolution (3D micro-XRF and 3D micro-PIXE). These developments have contributed since 2003 to a variety of fields of applications in environmental, material and life sciences. In contrast to other elemental imaging methods, no size restriction of the objects investigated and the non-destructive character of analysis have been found indispensable for cultural heritage (CH) related applications. The review presents a summary of the experimental set-up developments at synchrotron radiation beamlines, particle accelerators and desktop spectrometers that have driven methodological developments and applications of confocal X-ray microscopy including depth profiling speciation studies by means of confocal X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The solid mathematical formulation developed for the quantitative in-depth elemental analysis of stratified materials is exemplified and depth profile reconstruction techniques are discussed. Selected CH applications related to the characterization of painted layers from paintings and decorated artifacts (enamels, glasses and ceramics), but also from the study of corrosion and patina layers in glass and metals, respectively, are presented. The analytical capabilities, limitations and future perspectives of the two variants of the confocal micro X-ray spectroscopy, 3D micro-XRF and 3D micro-PIXE, with respect to CH applications are critically assessed and discussed.


Paint Layer Proton Microprobe Cultural Heritage Object Elemental Depth Profile Polycapillary Lens 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Kanngießer
    • 1
  • W. Malzer
    • 1
  • I. Mantouvalou
    • 1
  • D. Sokaras
    • 2
    • 3
  • A. G. Karydas
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Institut für Optik und Atomare PhysikTechnical University of BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Nuclear PhysicsNCSR ‘Demokritos’AthensGreece
  3. 3.Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceSLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryMenlo ParkUSA
  4. 4.Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory (NSAL)International Atomic Energy AgencySeibersdorfAustria

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