Applied Physics A

, Volume 106, Issue 2, pp 279–293 | Cite as

Portable X-ray powder diffractometer for the analysis of art and archaeological materials

Invited paper


Phase identification based on nondestructive analytical techniques using portable equipment is ideal for the analysis of art and archaeological objects. Portable(p)-XRF and p-Raman are very widely used for this purpose, yet p-XRD is relatively rare despite its importance for the analysis of crystalline materials. This paper overviews 6 types of p-XRD systems developed for analysis of art and archaeological materials. The characteristics of each system are compared. One of the p-XRD systems developed by the authors was brought to many museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt and Syria to characterize the cultural heritage artifacts, e.g., amulet made of Egyptian blue, blue painted pottery, and Islamic pottery from Egypt, jade from China, variscite from Syria, a Japanese classic painting drawn by Korin Ogata, and oil paintings drawn by Taro Okamoto. Practical application data are shown to demonstrate the potential ability of the method for analysis of various art and archaeological materials.



The authors are grateful to the following directors of the archaeological missions and museums and curators who helped to carry out our onsite X-ray analysis: Dr. Mark Lehner, Prof. Sakuji Yoshimura, Dr. Mutsuo Kawatoko, Prof. Peter Pfalzner, Prof. S. Xiong, Prof. R. Xie, Mr. Yasuo Nakano, and Mr. Tokugo Uchida. They are also grateful to students of our laboratory who helped our measurements.

Supplementary material

339_2011_6694_MOESM1_ESM.doc (182 kb)
(DOC 230 kB)


  1. 1.
    D. Parras-Guijarro, M. Montejo-Gámez, N. Ramos-Martos, A. Sánchez, Spectrochim. Acta. Part A 64, 1133 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Breitman, S. Ruiz-Moreno, A.L. Gil, Spectrochim. Acta. Part A 68, 1114 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Roy, E.W. Fitzhugh (eds.), Artists’ Pigments. A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, vol. 2–3 (1997) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Abe, I. Nakai, K. Takahashi, N. Kawai, S. Yoshimura, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 1987 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Maeo, I. Nakai, S. Nomura, H. Yamao, K. Taniguchi, Adv. X-Ray Chem. Anal. 34, 125 (2003) (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    I. Nakai, S. Maeo, T. Tashiro, K. Tantrakarn, T. Utaka, K. Taniguchi, Adv. X-Ray Chem. Anal. 38, 371 (2007) (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Abe, K. Tantrakarn, I. Nakai, S. Maeo, T. Utaka, K. Taniguchi, Adv. X-Ray Chem. Anal. 39, 209 (2008) (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Uda, S. Sassa, T. Yoshioka, K. Taniguchi, S. Nomura, S. Yoshimura, J. Kondo, N. Nakamura, N. Iskandar, B. Zaghloul, Int. J. PIXE 9, 441 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Uda, S. Sassa, K. Taniguchi, S. Nomura, S. Yoshimura, J. Kondo, N. Iskander, B. Zaghloul, Naturwissenschaften 87, 260 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Uda, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 226, 75 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Uda, A. Ishizaki, R. Satoh, K. Okada, Y. Nakajima, D. Yamashita, K. Ohashi, Y. Sakuraba, A. Shimono, D. Kojima, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 239, 77 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Yamashita, A. Ishizaki, M. Uda, Bunseki Kagaku 58, 347 (2009) (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    F.P. Romano, G. Pappalardo, L. Pappalardo, F. Rizzo, Nuovo Cimento 121, 881 (2006) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Pappalardo, G. Pappalardo, F. Amorini, M.G. Branciforti, F.P. Romano, J. de Sanoit, F. Rizzo, E. Scafiri, A. Taormina, G. Gatto Rotondo, X-Ray Spectrom. 37, 270 (2008) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Gatto Rotondo, F.P. Romano, G. Pappalardo, L. Pappalardo, F. Rizzo, Microchem. J. 96, 252 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D.L. Bish, D. Blake, P. Sarrazin, A. Treiman, T. Hoehler, E.M. Hausrath, I. Midtkandal, A. Steele, Lunar Planet. Sci. 38, Abstract #1163 (2007) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Blake, A Historical Perspective of the Development of the CheMin Mineralogical Instrument for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL ’11) Mission (Geochemical Society, 2010). URL:
  18. 18.
    P. Sarrazin, W. Brunner, D. Blake, M. Gailhanou, D.L. Bish, D. Vaniman, S. Chipera, D.W. Ming, A. Steele, I. Midtkandal, H.E.F. Amundsen, R. Peterson, Lunar Planet. Sci. 39, Abstract #2421 (2008) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Chiari, Nature 453, 159 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Sarrazin, G. Chiari, M. Gailhanou, URL:
  21. 21.
    Getty Conservation Institute, New Portable X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluorescence Instrument. URL:
  22. 22.
    A. Gianoncelli, J. Castaing, L. Ortega, E. Dooryhe, J. Salomon, P. Walter, J.-L. Hodeau, P. Bordet, X-Ray Spectrom. 37, 418 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Pages-Camagna, E. Laval, D. Vigears, A. Duran, Appl. Phys. A 100, 671 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. Padeletti, P. Fermo, A. Bouquillon, M. Aucouturier, F. Barbe, Appl. Phys. A 100, 747 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. Berti, F. De Marco, S. Aldrighetti, Mater. Sci. Forum 681, 461 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    XRD-Tools/Portable Diffractometers (DifRob). URL:
  27. 27.
    A. Pifferi, G. Campi, C. Giacovazzo, E. Gobbic, Croat. Chem. Acta 82, 449 (2009) Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    inXitu, Terra, Field Portable XRD/XRF Instrument. URL:
  29. 29.
    Y. Abe, H. Gondai, S. Takeuchi, J. Shirataki, T. Uchida, I. Nakai, Bunseki Kagaku 60, 477 (2011) (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Yoshimura, S. Hasegawa, Waseda J. Hum. Sci. 8, 177 (1995) (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    The Society for the Egyptian Studies of Waseda University, The Journal of Egyptian Studies Occasional Publication No. 1–13 (Waseda University Press, Tokyo, 1995–2009) (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.J. Shortland, C.A. Hope, M.S. Tite, in Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage, ed. by M. Maggetti, B. Messiga (Geological Society, London, 2006), pp. 91–99 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Gondai, N. Kato, I. Nakai, Y. Shindo, in Artifacts of the Islamic Period Excavated in the Raya/al-Tur Area, South Sinai, Egypt, Ceramics / Glass / Painted Plaster, ed. by M. Kawatoko, Y. Shindo (Research Center for Islamic Area Studies Organization for Islamic Area Studies, Waseda University, Tokyo, 2009), pp. 59–65 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceTokyo University of ScienceTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations