Influence of processing time on nanoparticle generation during picosecond-pulsed fundamental and second harmonic laser ablation of metals in tetrahydrofuran
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The influence of fundamental and second harmonic wavelength on ablation efficiency and nanoparticle properties is studied during picosecond laser ablation of silver, zinc, and magnesium in polymer-doped tetrahydrofuran. Laser ablation in stationary liquid involves simultaneously the fabrication of nanoparticles by ablation of the target material and fragmentation of dispersed nanoparticles by post irradiation. The ratio in which the laser pulse energy contributes to these processes depends on laser wavelength and colloidal properties. For plasmon absorbers (silver), using the second harmonic wavelength leads to a decrease of the nanoparticle productivity over process time along with exponential decrease in particle diameter, while using the fundamental wavelength results in a constant ablation rate and linear decrease in particle diameter. For colloids made of materials without plasmon absorption (zinc, magnesium), laser scattering is the colloidal property that limits nanoparticle productivity by Mie-scattering of dispersed nanoparticle clusters.