Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Resistance switching memories are memristors

Abstract

All 2-terminal non-volatile memory devices based on resistance switching are memristors, regardless of the device material and physical operating mechanisms. They all exhibit a distinctive “fingerprint” characterized by a pinched hysteresis loop confined to the first and the third quadrants of the vi plane whose contour shape in general changes with both the amplitude and frequency of any periodic “sine-wave-like” input voltage source, or current source. In particular, the pinched hysteresis loop shrinks and tends to a straight line as frequency increases. Though numerous examples of voltage vs. current pinched hysteresis loops have been published in many unrelated fields, such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc., and observed from many unrelated phenomena, such as gas discharge arcs, mercury lamps, power conversion devices, earthquake conductance variations, etc., we restrict our examples in this tutorial to solid-state and/or nano devices where copious examples of published pinched hysteresis loops abound. In particular, we sampled arbitrarily, one example from each year between the years 2000 and 2010, to demonstrate that the memristor is a device that does not depend on any particular material, or physical mechanism. For example, we have shown that spin-transfer magnetic tunnel junctions are examples of memristors. We have also demonstrated that both bipolar and unipolar resistance switching devices are memristors.

The goal of this tutorial is to introduce some fundamental circuit-theoretic concepts and properties of the memristor that are relevant to the analysis and design of non-volatile nano memories where binary bits are stored as resistances manifested by the memristor’s continuum of equilibrium states. Simple pedagogical examples will be used to illustrate, clarify, and demystify various misconceptions among the uninitiated.

References

  1. 1.

    L.O. Chua, IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory CT 18, 507 (1971)

  2. 2.

    L.O. Chua, S.M. Kang, Proc. IEEE 64, 209 (1976)

  3. 3.

    L. Chua, Nonlinear circuit theory, in Modern Network Theory—An Introduction: Guest lectures of the 1978 European Conference on circuit theory and Design, ed. by G.S. Moschytz, J. Neirynck (Georgi, st-Saphorin, Switzerland, 1978), p. 81

  4. 4.

    L.O. Chua, Proc. IEEE 91, 1830 (2003)

  5. 5.

    J.J.B. Jack, D. Noble, R.W. Tsien, Electric Current Flow in Excitable Cells (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1975)

  6. 6.

    M. Itoh, L. Chua, Int. J. Bifur. Chaos 18, 3183 (2008)

  7. 7.

    Z. Diao, M. Pakala, A. Panchula, Y. Ding, D. Apalkov, L.-C. Wang, E. Chen, Y. Huai, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 086510 (2006)

  8. 8.

    X. Duan, Y. Huang, C.M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 2, 487 (2002)

  9. 9.

    J.W. Bruce, P.J. Giblin, Functions and Singularities (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999)

  10. 10.

    D.B. Strukov, G.S. Snider, D.R. Stewart, R.S. Williams, Nature 453, 80–83 (2008)

  11. 11.

    R. Waser, M. Aono, Nat. Mater. 6, 833 (2007)

  12. 12.

    L. Chua, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. CAS-27, 1014 (1980)

  13. 13.

    L.O. Chua, Introduction to Memristors, IEEE Expert Now Education Course, IEEE (2010)

  14. 14.

    M. Di Ventra, Y.V. Pershin, L.O. Chua, Proc. IEEE 97, 1717 (2009)

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Leon Chua.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chua, L. Resistance switching memories are memristors. Appl. Phys. A 102, 765–783 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-011-6264-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Resistance Switching
  • Memristive Device
  • High Conductance State
  • Resistance Switching Memory
  • Pinched Hysteresis Loop