Applied Physics A

, Volume 103, Issue 3, pp 673–676 | Cite as

Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope

  • J. Jose
  • F. B. Segerink
  • J. P. Korterik
  • J. L. Herek
  • H. L. Offerhaus
Open Access


We report the surface plasmon polariton interference, generated via a ‘buried’ gold grating, and imaged using a phase-sensitive Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM). The phase-resolved PSTM measurement unravels the complex surface plasmon polariton interference fields at the gold-air interface.


Photon Scan Tunneling Microscope Optical Amplitude Grating Wave Vector Azimuthal Rotation Angle Periodic Photonic Structure 


  1. 1.
    R.C. Reddick, R.J. Warmack, T.L. Ferrell, New form of scanning optical microscopy. Phys. Rev. B 39(1), 767–770 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.H. Ritchie, Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films. Phys. Rev. 1(5), 874–881 (1957) MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Grating (Springer, Berlin, 1988) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Z.W. Liu, Q.H. Wei, X. Zhang, Surface plasmon interference nanolithography. Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.C. Kitson, W.L. Barnes, J.R. Sambles, Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(13), 2670–2673 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Homola, S.S. Yee, G. Gauglitz, Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review. Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Dawson, F. Defornel, J.P. Goudonnet, Imaging of surface-plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope. Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(18), 2927–2930 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.C. Weeber, J.R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, J.P. Goudonnet, Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes. Phys. Rev. B 6404(4), 045411 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.L.M. Balistreri, J.P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, N.F. van Hulst, Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Nesci, R. Dandliker, M. Salt, H.P. Herzig, Measuring amplitude and phase distribution of fields generated by gratings with sub-wavelength resolution. Opt. Commun. 205(4–6), 229–238 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Fluck, M. Hammer, A.M. Otter, J.P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, N.F. van Hulst, Amplitude and phase evolution of optical fields inside periodic photonic structures. J. Lightwave Technol. 21(5), 1384–1393 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.L. Offerhaus, B. van den Bergen, M. Escalante, F.B. Segerink, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings. Nano Lett. 5(11), 2144–2148 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Jose, F.B. Segerink, J.P. Korterik, H.L. Offerhaus, Near-field observation of spatial phase shifts associated with Goos-Hanschen and surface plasmon resonance effects. Opt. Express 16(3), 1958–1964 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light. Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    U. Schroter, D. Heitmann, Grating couplers for surface plasmons excited on thin metal films in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration. Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4992–4999 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Stierlin, R. Battig, P.D. Henchoz, H.P. Weber, Excess-noise suppression in a fiberoptic balanced heterodyne-detection system. Opt. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 445–454 (1986) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.G.T. Ruiter, J.A. Veerman, K.O. van der Werf, N.F. van Hulst, Dynamic behavior of tuning fork shear-force feedback. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(1), 28–30 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Jose
    • 1
  • F. B. Segerink
    • 1
  • J. P. Korterik
    • 1
  • J. L. Herek
    • 1
  • H. L. Offerhaus
    • 1
  1. 1.Mesa+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Optical Sciences GroupUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations