Advertisement

Applied Physics A

, Volume 100, Issue 3, pp 809–821 | Cite as

Evaluating paper degradation progress. Cross-linking between chromatographic, spectroscopic and chemical results

  • Tomasz Łojewski
  • Katarzyna Zięba
  • Arkadiusz Knapik
  • Jacek Bagniuk
  • Anna Lubańska
  • Joanna ŁojewskaEmail author
Article

Abstract

The study presents an overview of the chromatographic (SEC), spectroscopic (FTIR, UV/VIS), viscometric (DP) and chemical methods (titration, pH) used for the evaluation of the degradation progress of various kinds of paper under various conditions. The methods were chosen to follow different routes of paper degradation. Model paper samples represented boundary paper types from pure cellulose cotton paper, through softwood to low quality acidic, sized groundwood paper The accelerated ageing conditions were adjusted to achieve maximum effect (climatic chamber RH 59%, 90oC) and also to mimic the environment inside books (closed vials). The results were settled on the literature data on the degradation mechanisms and compared in terms of the paper types and ageing conditions. The estimators of coupled de-polymerisation and oxidation have been proposed based on the correlation between SEC, UV/VIS and titrative coppper number determination. The overall oxidation index derived from FTIR results was shown to correlate with the summary –CHO and –COOH concentration determined by titrative methods.

Keywords

Lignin Climatic Chamber Cellulose Chain Paper Sample Closed Vial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A.M. Emsley, R.J. Heywood, M. Ali, C.M. Eley, Cellulose 4, 1 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Calvini, A. Gorassini, A.L. Merlani, Cellulose 15, 193 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Barański, Restaurator 23, 77 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Barański, A. Konieczna-Molenda, J.M. Łagan, L.M. Proniewicz, Restaurator 4, 36 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Barański, J.M. Łagan, T. Łojewski, E-Preservation Sci. 3, 1 (2006) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Łojewska, P. Miśkowiec, T. Łojewski, L.M. Proniewicz, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 88, 512 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Łojewska, A. Lubańska, T. Łojewski, P. Miśkowiec, L.M. Proniewicz, E-Preservation Sci. 2, 1 (2005) Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Barański, J.M. Łagan, T. Łojewski, Acid catalysed degradation, in Aging and Stabilisation of Paper (National and University Library, Ljubljana, 2005) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Łojewska, H. Lubańska, P. Miśkowiec, T. Łojewski, L.M. Proniewicz, Appl. Phys. A 83, 597 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Łojewska, M. Missori, A. Lubańska, P. Grimaldi, K. Zięba, L.M. Proniewicz, A. Ccongiu Castellano, Appl. Phys. A 89, 883 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lai Yuan-Zong, Chemical degradation, in Wood and Cellulosic Chemistry (Dekker, New York, 2000) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Kolar, Restaurator 18, 163 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.-L. Dupont, Restaurator 17(1), 45 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Strlič, J. Kolar, Aging and Stabilisation of Paper (National and University Library, Ljubljana, 2005) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Margutti, G. Conio, P. Calvini, Restaurator 22, 67 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    L.R.C. Barclay, F. Xi, J.Q. Norris, J. Wood Chem. Technol. 17, 73 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.A. Schmidt, C.S. Rye, N. Gurnagul, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 4, 291 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.-L. Dupont, C. Egasse, A. Morin, F. Vasseur, Carbohydr. Polym. 68(1), 1 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Strlič, J. Kolar, D. Kočar, T. Drnovšek, V.S. Šelih, R. Susič, B. Pihlar, E-Preservation Sci. 1, 35 (2004) Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Łojewski, T. Sawoszczuk, J.M. Łagan, A. Barański, Furfural as a marker of cellulose degradation. A quantitative approach. Appl. Phys. A (2010). doi: 10.1007/s00339-010-5663-7
  21. 21.
    J. Baeza, J. Frezer, Chemical characterization of wood and its components, in Wood and Cellulosic Chemistry, ed. by D.N. Hon, N. Shiraishi (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2000) Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Bicchieri, S. Pepa, Restaurator 17, 165 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W.K. Wilson, J. Mandel, Tappi 44, 131 (1961) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Havermans, Restaurator 132, 209 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    ASTM D6819-02(2007) Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Sawoszczuk, A. Barański, J.M. Łagan, T. Łojewski, K. Zięba, J. Cult. Herit 9, 401 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. Stol, J.L. Jr. Pedersoli, H. Poppe, W.T. Kok, Anal. Chem. 74(10), 2314 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    SCAN-CM 15:88: Viscosity in cupri-ethylenediamine solution. Scandinavian Pulp, Paper and Board Testing Committee (1988) Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Łojewski, K. Zięba, SEC/MALLS technique in paper degradation studies. J. Chromotogr. A (2010, submitted) Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    TAPPI Test Method T 509 Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D.J.T. Hill, T.T. Le, M. Darveniza, T. Saha, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 48, 79 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Sakakibara, J. Sano, Chemistry of lignin, in Wood and Cellulosic Chemistry, ed. by D.N. Hon, N. Shiraishi (Dekker, New York, 2000) Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K.L. Kato, R.E. Cameron, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74, 1465 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A.-L. Dupont, G. Mortha, J. Chromatogr. A 1026, 129 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Strlič, J. Kolar, M. Zigon, B. Pihlar, J. Chromatogr. A 805, 93 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomasz Łojewski
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Zięba
    • 1
  • Arkadiusz Knapik
    • 1
  • Jacek Bagniuk
    • 1
  • Anna Lubańska
    • 2
  • Joanna Łojewska
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of ChemistryJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Catalysis and Surface ChemistryPolish Academy of SciencesKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations