Density-controlled growth and field emission property of aligned ZnO nanorod arrays
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We demonstrate here a method for tuning the field emission properties of site- and area-density-controlled ZnO nanorod array using an aqueous process assisted by nanosphere lithography. The ZnO nanorods were grown on the hexagonally arranged circular patterns surrounded by nickel membranes on Si substrate. The synthesis process involved two main steps. First, an ordered monolayer film of polystyrene spheres was used to create nickel membranes with hexagonally arranged pores on ZnO-coated Si substrate. Electrodeposition of Ni was performed under a constant voltage for different durations in order to control the pore diameter. The pores were used to guide the growth of ZnO nanorods from the exposed ZnO seed layer. Furthermore, the growth from smaller hexagonally arranged circle patterns could result in single ZnO nanorods. Field emission measurements show that the emission characteristic was strongly dependent on the density of ZnO nanorods. The field emission studies show a good stability of the emission current and the lowest turn-on field for the low-density ZnO nanorod sample. This process enables site and density control of one-dimensional nanostructures, which is promising for further device applications, such as field emission sources, microelectronics, and nanoresonators.
PACS61.46.Km 68.37.Hk 81.16.-c 81.16.Nd 61.72.uj
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