How does the substrate affect the Raman and excited state spectra of a carbon nanotube?
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We study the optical properties of a single, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) that is partially suspended across a trench and partially supported by a SiO2-substrate. By tuning the laser excitation energy across the E 33 excitonic resonance of the suspended CNT segment, the scattering intensities of the principal Raman transitions, the radial breathing mode (RBM), the D mode and the G mode show strong resonance enhancement of up to three orders of magnitude. In the supported part of the CNT, despite a loss of Raman scattering intensity of up to two orders of magnitude, we recover the E 33 excitonic resonance suffering a substrate-induced red shift of 50 meV. The peak intensity ratio between G band and D band is highly sensitive to the presence of the substrate and varies by one order of magnitude, demonstrating the much higher defect density in the supported CNT segments. By comparing the E 33 resonance spectra measured by Raman excitation spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectroscopy in the suspended CNT segment, we observe that the peak energy in the PL excitation spectrum is red-shifted by 40 meV. This shift is associated with the energy difference between the localized exciton dominating the PL excitation spectrum and the free exciton giving rise to the Raman excitation spectrum. High-resolution Raman spectra reveal substrate-induced symmetry breaking, as evidenced by the appearance of additional peaks in the strongly broadened Raman G band. Laser-induced line shifts of RBM and G band measured on the suspended CNT segment are both linear as a function of the laser excitation power. Stokes/anti-Stokes measurements, however, reveal an increase of the G phonon population while the RBM phonon population is rather independent of the laser excitation power.
PACS78.67.Ch 78.30.Na 71.35.Cc
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