Applied Physics A

, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp 291–296 | Cite as

Polaron and ion diffusion in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) thin-film transistor gated with polymer electrolyte dielectric

Article

Abstract

Electrolytes are finding applications as dielectric materials in low-voltage organic thin-film transistors (OTFT). The presence of mobile ions in these materials (polymer electrolytes or ion gels) gives rise to very high capacitance (>10 μF/cm2) and thus low transistor turn-on voltage. In order to establish fundamental limits in switching speeds of electrolyte gated OFETs, we carry out in situ optical spectroscopy measurement of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) OTFT gated with a LiClO4:poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) dielectric. Based on spectroscopic signatures of molecular vibrations and polaron transitions, we quantitatively determine charge carrier concentration and diffusion constants. We find two distinctively different regions: at V G≥−1.5 V, drift-diffusion (parallel to the semiconductor/dielectric interface) of hole-polarons in P3HT controls charging of the device; at V G<−1.5 V, electrochemical doping of the entire P3HT film occurs and charging is controlled by drift/diffusion (perpendicular to the interface) of ClO4 counter ions into the polymer semiconductor.

PACS

85.30.Tv 82.35.Rs 66.30.Hs 82.45.Gj 72.80.Le 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    F.M. Gray, Solid Polymer Electrolytes: Fundamentals and Technological Applications (VCH, New York, 1991) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Takeya, K. Yamada, K. Hara, K. Shigeto, K. Tsukagoshi, S. Ikehata, Y. Aoyagi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 112102 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.J. Panzer, C.D. Frisbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203504 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.J. Panzer, C.R. Newman, C.D. Frisbie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103503 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.J. Panzer, C.D. Frisbie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6599 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.S. Dhoot, J.D. Yuen, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, D. Moses, A.J. Heeger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11834 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L.G. Kaake, Y. Zou, M.J. Panzer, C.D. Frisbie, X.-Y. Zhu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 7824 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.D. Yuen, A.S. Dhoot, E.B. Namdas, N.E. Coates, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, D. Moses, A.J. Heeger, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 14367 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Kaake, X.-Y. Zhu, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 16174 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P.J. Brown, H. Sirringhaus, M. Harrison, M. Shkunov, R.H. Friend, Phys. Rev. B 63, 125204 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Osterbacka, C.P. An, X.M. Jiang, Z.V. Vardeny, Science 287, 839 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Z.Q. Li, G.M. Wang, N. Sai, D. Moses, M.C. Martin, M. Di Ventra, A.J. Heeger, D.N. Basov, Nano Lett. 6, 224 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Horovitz, R. Osterbaka, Z.V. Vardeny, Synth. Met. 141, 179 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.M. Erwin, J. McBride, A.V. Kadavanich, S.J. Rosenthal, Thin Solid Films 409, 198 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.-I. Kuroda, K. Marumoto, T. Sakanaka, N. Takeuchi, Y. Shimoi, S. Abe, H. Kokubo, T. Yamamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 435, 273 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Tashiro, K. Ono, Y. Minagawa, M. Kobayashi, T. Kawai, K. Yoshino, J. Poly. Sci. B: Polym. Phys. 29, 1223 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, A.J. Heeger, Science 269, 1086 (1995) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.L. Powers, Boundary Value Problems, 3rd edn. (Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth, 1987) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Kaneto, H. Agawa, K. Yoshino, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1197 (1987) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. West, M.A. Careem, S. Skaarup, Solid State Ionics 60, 153 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.J. González-Tejera, E. Sánchez de la Blanca, I. Carrillo, M.I. Redondo, M.A. Raso, J. Tortajada, M.V. García, Synth. Met. 151, 100 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Shimotani, G. Diguet, Y. Iwasa, Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 022104 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Roichman, N. Tessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1948 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Volel, M. Armand, W. Gorecki, Macromolecules 37, 8373 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Duan, J.W. Halley, L. Curtiss, P. Redfern, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 054702 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations