The formation of cationic clusters in the laser ablation of CdS targets has been investigated as a function of wavelength and fluence by mass spectrometric analysis of the plume. Ablation was carried out at the laser wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355, and 266 nm in order to scan the interaction regimes below and above the energy band gap of the material. In all cases, the mass spectra showed stoichiometric CdnSn+ and nonstoichiometric CdnSn−1+, CdnSn+1+, and CdnSn+2+ clusters up to 4900 amu. Cluster size distributions were well represented by a log-normal function, although larger relative abundance for clusters with n=13, 16, 19, 34 was observed (magic numbers). The laser threshold fluence for cluster observation was strongly dependent on wavelength, ranging from around 16 mJ/cm2 at 266 nm to more than 300 mJ/cm2 at 532 and 1064 nm. According to the behavior of the detected species as a function of fluence, two distinct families were identified: the “light” family containing S2+ and Cd+ and the “heavy” clusterized family grouping Cd2+ and CdnSm+. In terms of fluence, it has been determined that the best ratio for clusterization is achieved close to the threshold of appearance of clusters at all wavelengths. At 1064, 532, and 355 nm, the production of “heavy” cations as a function of fluence showed a maximum, indicating the participation of competitive effects, whereas saturation is observed at 266 nm. In terms of relative production, the contribution of the “heavy” family to the total cation signal was significantly lower for 266 nm than for the longer wavelengths. Irradiation at 355 nm in the fluence region of 200 mJ/cm2 has been identified as the optimum for the generation of large clusters in CdS.
36.40.-c 52.38.Mf 81.07.Ta
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.