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Applied Physics A

, 92:473 | Cite as

Nonlinear photoionization in the soft X-ray regime

  • M. Richter
  • S. V. Bobashev
  • A. A. Sorokin
  • K. Tiedtke
Article

Abstract

At the new Free-electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH, we have studied photon–matter interaction by means of ion time-of-flight spectroscopy on gases in the soft X-ray regime. Emphasis was laid on the quantitative investigation of non-linear effects upon photoionization by the highly intense soft X-ray laser pulses. In the photon energy range from 38 to 93 eV, we have observed nonlinearities due to space-charge effects, target depletion, and sequential and direct multi-photon ionization at irradiance levels of up to 1016 W cm−2. The work is related to the development of photon diagnostic tools that are based on gas-phase photoionization for current and future X-ray laser facilities but might be of significance for any experiment at fourth generation light sources.

PACS

32.80.Rm 32.80.Fb 06.30.-k 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Richter
    • 1
  • S. V. Bobashev
    • 2
  • A. A. Sorokin
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. Tiedtke
    • 3
  1. 1.Physikalisch-Technische BundesanstaltBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Ioffe Physico-Technical InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Deutsches Elektronen-SynchrotronHamburgGermany

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