Applied Physics A

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 203–210 | Cite as

A non invasive method to detect stratigraphy, thicknesses and pigment concentration of pictorial multilayers based on EDXRF and vis-RS: in situ applications

  • L. Bonizzoni
  • S. Caglio
  • A. GalliEmail author
  • G. Poldi


Energy dispersive XRF analysis (EDXRF) in association with visible reflectance spectroscopy (vis-RS), both achieved by portable instruments, can be successfully applied, in a wide range of cases, to investigate wood or canvas paintings in order to obtain some stratigraphic information with non-invasive techniques. The specific aim of this work is to use them as quantitative tools: EDXRF to reconstruct the thicknesses of the detected layers, vis-RS to report pigment concentration in the uppermost layer. The method has been tested in the laboratory on paint layers with different composition of about 50 multilayers and more than 100 single layers [12]. We present here some in situ analyses of famous paintings by Andrea Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini, compared with stratigraphic optical microscopy observations on cross sections. Advantages and limits are pointed out.


External Layer Pigment Concentration Paint Layer Lead White Blue Pigment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. Cennini, Il Libro dell’arte, ed. by F. Le Monnier (Firenze, 1859)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Denker, J. Optiz-Coutureau, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 213, 677 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Weber, J.M. Delbrouck, D. Strivay, F. Kerff, L. Martinot, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 139, 196 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.A. Mandò, M.E. Fedi, N. Grassi, A. Migliori, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 239, 71 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    N. Grassi, A. Migliori, P.A. Mandò, H. Calvo del Castillo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 219/220, 48 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ž. Šmit, K. Janssens, K. Proost, I. Langus, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 219/220, 35 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Pappalardo, A.G. Karydas, N. Kotzanami, G. Pappalardo, F.P. Romano, C. Zarkadas, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 229, 114 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Liang, M. Gomez Cid, R.G. Cucu, G.M. Dobre, A.G. Podoleanu, D. Saunders, Optics Express 13/16, 6133 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Bacci, In: Modern Analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology, ed. by E. Ciliberto, G. Spoto (Wiley, Chichester, 2000), pp. 321–360Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Poldi, L. Bonizzoni, N. Ludwig, I. Mascheroni, M. Milazzo, Proc. of 34th Int. Symp. on Archaeometry (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Johnston-Feller, Color Science in the Examination of Museum Objects (Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Bonizzoni, A. Galli, G. Poldi, M. Milazzo, X-ray Spectrom. 36, 55 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.S. Berns, J. Krueger, M. Swicklik, Stud. Conserv. 47, 46 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Dupuis, M. Menu, Appl. Phys. A 83, 469 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Moneta, N. Ludwig, G. Poldi, M. Gargano, In: Colore e colorimetria: contributi multidisciplinari. Atti della Prima Conferenza Nazionale del Gruppo del Colore (Pescara 2005) (Centro Ed. Toscano, Firenze, 2005), pp. 157–164Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Caglio, F. Frezzato, G. Poldi, In: Bellini a Vicenza, ed. by M.E. Avagnina, G.C.F. Villa (Biblos, Cittadella, 2007), pp. 75–90Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Bonizzoni, G. Poldi, G.C.F. Villa, In: Dalla conservazione alla storia dell’arte. Riflettografia e analisi non invasive per lo studio dei dipinti, ed. by G. Poldi, G.C.F. Villa (Edizioni della Normale, Pisa, 2006), pp. 529–541Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Poldi, L. Bonizzoni, A. Galli, In: Andrea Mantegna, la Madonna dei Cherubini, ed. by M. Olivari (Electa, Milano, 2006), pp. 44–56Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Istituto di Fisica Generale ApplicataUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di analisi scientifiche, Open CareMilanoItaly
  3. 3.CNR-INFM, Dipartimento di Scienza dei MaterialiUniversità degli Studi di Milano-BicoccaMilanoItaly
  4. 4.LANIAC, Università degli Studi di VeronaVeronaItaly

Personalised recommendations