Applied Physics A

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 77–81 | Cite as

Insights into the varnishes of historical musical instruments using synchrotron micro-analytical methods

  • J.-P. EchardEmail author
  • M. Cotte
  • E. Dooryhee
  • L. Bertrand


Though ancient violins and other stringed instruments are often revered for the beauty of their varnishes, the varnishing techniques are not much known. In particular, very few detailed varnish analyses have been published so far. Since 2002, a research program at the Musée de la musique (Paris) is dedicated to a detailed description of varnishes on famous ancient musical instruments using a series of novel analytical methods. For the first time, results are presented on the study of the varnish from a late 16th century Venetian lute, using synchrotron micro-analytical methods. Identification of both organic and inorganic compounds distributed within the individual layers of a varnish microsample has been performed using spatially resolved synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microscopy. The univocal identification of the mineral phases is obtained through synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The materials identified may be of utmost importance to understand the varnishing process and its similarities with some painting techniques. In particular, the proteinaceous binding medium and the calcium sulfate components (bassanite and anhydrite) that have been identified in the lower layers of the varnish microsample could be related, to a certain extent, to the ground materials of earlier Italian paintings.


Anhydrite Calcium Sulfate Bassanite Painting Technique Stringed Instrument 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.-P. Echard
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. Cotte
    • 3
  • E. Dooryhee
    • 4
  • L. Bertrand
    • 5
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Recherche et de Restauration, Musée de la Musique, Cité de la MusiqueParisFrance
  2. 2.Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation des Collections, CNRS UMR 7188Muséum National d’Histoire NaturelleParisFrance
  3. 3.European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF, ID21Grenoble CedexFrance
  4. 4.Institut Néel, CNRS UPR 2940Grenoble Cedex 9France
  5. 5.Heritage and Archaeology Liaison Office, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-AubinGif-sur-Yvette CedexFrance

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