Applied Physics A

, Volume 81, Issue 5, pp 943–951

Optimisation and on-line acoustic monitoring of laser cleaning of soiled paper

  • M. Strlič
  • V.S. Šelih
  • J. Kolar
  • D. Kočar
  • B. Pihlar
  • R. Ostrowski
  • J. Marczak
  • M. Strzelec
  • M. Marinček
  • T. Vuorinen
  • L.S. Johansson


Laser cleaning is an attractive and advanced technique of cleaning cultural heritage materials. However, in the case of paper-based substrates, it may lead to surface discoloration and long-term destabilisation of the cellulosic component. The origin of discoloration during pulsed laser removal (Nd:YAG laser, 532 and 1064 nm) of carbonaceous soiling was studied using UV resonance Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was concluded that macromolecular conjugated systems are the most probable cause of discoloration, formed as a consequence of thermolytic reactions. With chemiluminometry, we analysed the processes following irradiation. Using photo-ageing and thermally accelerated ageing, it was indicated that, even at fluences lower than the ablation threshold of cellulose, long-term destabilisation of the material should be taken into account. By using much lower laser shot repetition rates than usual, i.e. 1 s-1, we can allow the substrate to cool between consecutive laser shots, thus minimising the adverse effects of laser treatment. Acoustic monitoring was shown to be an affordable possibility for on-line process control. The amplitude of shock waves was shown not to be wavelength dependent (532 or 1064 nm); however, the parameter can be used to monitor the progress of cleaning.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Strlič
    • 1
  • V.S. Šelih
    • 1
  • J. Kolar
    • 2
  • D. Kočar
    • 1
  • B. Pihlar
    • 1
  • R. Ostrowski
    • 3
  • J. Marczak
    • 3
  • M. Strzelec
    • 3
  • M. Marinček
    • 4
  • T. Vuorinen
    • 5
  • L.S. Johansson
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical TechnologyUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  2. 2.National and University LibraryLjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.Institute of OptoelectronicsMilitary University of TechnologyWarsawPoland
  4. 4.Fotona d.d.LjubljanaSlovenia
  5. 5.Helsinki University of TechnologyHelsinkiFinland

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