Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics
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Using tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses, waveguides can be fabricated inside various glasses and crystals. This technique has the potential to generate not only planar but three-dimensional photonic devices. In this paper we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first true three-dimensional integrated optical device, a 1×3 splitter fabricated in pure fused silica. The optical properties of this device and possibilities for the fabrication of complex high-density integrated optical elements are discussed.
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