Coral Reefs

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 1225–1240 | Cite as

Independent effects of ocean warming versus acidification on the growth, survivorship and physiology of two Acropora corals

  • Kristen D. AndersonEmail author
  • Neal E. Cantin
  • Jordan M. Casey
  • Morgan S. Pratchett


Climate change is the greatest threat to coral reef ecosystems. Importantly, gradual changes in seawater chemistry compounds upon increasing temperatures leading to declines in calcification and survivorship of reef-building corals. To assess relative versus synergistic effects of warming versus ocean acidification, Acropora muricata and Acropora hyacinthus were subjected to three temperature treatments (26 °C, 28.5 °C, 31 °C) crossed with three levels of pCO2 (410 μatm, 652 μatm, 934 μatm), representing current, mid and end-of-century scenarios for 12 weeks. Temperature increased gradually in the tanks from 26 °C to target temperatures over 5 weeks. Once stress was evident in the 31 °C (+ 2.5 °C above historical summer max) tanks, water temperature was decreased to normal summertime levels (29 °C) to assess recovery. pCO2 was gradually changed from control values (410 μatm) to target values over a 3 week period where they remained constant until the end of the experiment at 12 weeks. Temperature stress (31 °C) significantly impacted survivorship (90–95% decline), and over the long-term, there was a 50–90% decline in calcification across both coral species. Negative effects of mid and end-of-century pCO2 were largely independent of temperature and caused moderate reductions (36–74%) in calcification rates compared to temperature, over the long-term. Corals that survived temperature stress had higher lipid and protein content, showing that enhanced physiological condition provides an increased capacity to tolerate adverse temperatures. This study demonstrates that given the mortality rates in response to + 2.5 °C temperature stress, warming oceans (as opposed to ocean acidification) throughout the remainder of this century poses the greatest threat to reef-building corals.


Temperature Ocean acidification Climate change Acropora muricata Acropora hyacinthus 



The authors would like to thanks the staff from the MV James Kirby, Andrea Severati and all the SeaSim staff, as well as all volunteers in field and laboratory. Special thanks to J. Finn and B. Vanoverbeke for helping implement the experiment. This study was supported and funded by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University and the Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

338_2019_1864_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 1367 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristen D. Anderson
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Neal E. Cantin
    • 2
  • Jordan M. Casey
    • 3
    • 4
  • Morgan S. Pratchett
    • 1
  1. 1.ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.PSL Université Paris: EPHE-UPVD-CNRS, USR 3278 CRIOBEUniversité de PerpignanPerpignanFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire D’Excellence “CORAIL”PerpignanFrance

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