Coral Reefs

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 505–520 | Cite as

Applying a ridge-to-reef framework to support watershed, water quality, and community-based fisheries management in American Samoa

  • Mia T. Comeros-RaynalEmail author
  • Alice Lawrence
  • Mareike Sudek
  • Motusaga Vaeoso
  • Kim McGuire
  • Josephine Regis
  • Peter Houk


Water quality and fisheries exploitation are localized, chronic stressors that impact coral reef condition and resilience. Yet, quantifying the relative contribution of individual stressors and evaluating the degree of human impact to any particular reef are difficult due to the inherent variation in biological assemblages that exists across and within island scales. We developed a framework to first account for island-scale variation in biological assemblages, and then evaluate the condition of 26 reefs adjacent to watersheds in Tutuila, American Samoa. Water quality data collected over 1 year were first linked with watershed characteristics such as land use and human population. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were best predicted by total human population and disturbed land for watersheds with over 200 humans km−2, providing a predictive threshold for DIN enrichment attributed to human populations. Coral reef assemblages were next partitioned into three distinct reeftypes to account for inherent variation in biological assemblages and isolate upon local stressors. Regression models suggested that watershed characteristics linked with DIN and fishing access best predicted ecological condition scores, but their influences differed. Relationships were weakest between coral assemblages and watershed-based proxies of DIN, and strongest between fish assemblages and distances to boat harbors and wave energy (i.e., accessibility). While we did not explicitly address the potential recursivity between fish and coral assemblages, there was a weak overall correlation between these ecological condition scores. Instead, the more complex, recursive nature between reef fish and habitats was discussed with respect to bottom-up and top-down processes, and several ongoing studies that can better help address this topic into the future were identified. The framework used here showed the spatial variation of stressor influence, and the specific assemblage attributes influenced by natural and anthropogenic drivers which aims to guide a local ridge-to-reef management strategy.


Ridge to reef Water quality Coral reef condition Island-scale Resource management 



This work was funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 9 Wetland Program Development Grant (WPDG). We thank the late American Samoa EPA Director, Ameko Pato, for his support of this project. We are grateful to AS-EPA Director, Fa’amao Asalele, Jr., for his leadership and guidance throughout this study. We are grateful for the support from AS-EPA’s Water and Education Technical Programs and Administration services. We are thankful for the support from the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, especially Director Va’amua Henry Sesepasara. We are grateful to Gene Brighouse and Atuatasi-Lelei Peau from the National Marine Sanctuaries of American Samoa for their continued support of this work. We thank the National Park of American Samoa particularly Superintendent Scott Burch for overall project support. We thank the following for their assistance with water quality sampling: Joseph Paulin, Bert Fuiava, Ian Moffitt, and Paolo Marra-Biggs. We also thank Meagan Curtis, Kelley Anderson Tagarino, and Francis Leiato for logistical support. We are grateful for technical guidance from Chris Shuler, Dave Whitall, Trent Biggs, and Alex Messina. We thank Michael Wolfram, Wendy Wiltse, John McCarroll, and Hudson Slay for their continued guidance and support. MTCR is supported by funding from the Australian Research Council’s Centre of Excellence Program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

338_2019_1806_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (28 kb)
Figure S1 Ridge-to-reef analytical framework. Flowchart depicts process of testing inherent differences in biological assemblages using multivariate analysis (A), examining the relationship between Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen and watershed characteristics (B), and stepwise regression describing relationships between human and natural factors and biological condition (C) (PDF 28 kb)
338_2019_1806_MOESM2_ESM.png (329 kb)
Figure S2 The distribution of monthly DIN concentrations over the course of the study year with respect to ASEPA watershed classifications. Black lines show median values, boxes show 25th and 75th percentile, and lines show 5th and 95th percentile of the data. Colors indicate varying ASEPA watershed categories (PNG 329 kb)
338_2019_1806_MOESM3_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 13 kb)
338_2019_1806_MOESM4_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 12 kb)
338_2019_1806_MOESM5_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 14 kb)


  1. Adam TC, Schmitt RJ, Holbrook SJ, Brooks AJ, Edmunds PJ, Carpenter RC, Bernardi G (2011) Herbivory, Connectivity, and Ecosystem Resilience: Response of a Coral Reef to a Large-Scale Perturbation. PLOS ONE 6:e23717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez-Romero JG, Pressey RL, Ban NC, Brodie J (2015) Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection. PLoS One 10:e0145574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez-Romero JG, Wilkinson SN, Pressey RL, Ban NC, Kool J, Brodie J (2014) Modeling catchment nutrients and sediment loads to inform regional management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems: a comparison of two approaches. J Environ Manage 146:164–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson M, Gorley RN, Clarke RK (2008a) Permanova + for Primer: Guide to Software and Statistical MethodsGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson M, Gorley R, Clarke K (2008b) PERMANOVA + for PRIMER: Guide to Software and Statistical Methods. Plymouth, UK, 214 pp PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK, 214 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartley R, Bainbridge ZT, Lewis SE, Kroon FJ, Wilkinson SN, Brodie JE, Silburn DM (2014) Relating sediment impacts on coral reefs to watershed sources, processes and management: A review. Science of The Total Environment 468–469:1138–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bejarano S, Jouffray J-B, Chollett I, Allen R, Roff G, Marshell A, Steneck R, Ferse SCA, Mumby PJ (2017) The shape of success in a turbulent world: wave exposure filtering of coral reef herbivory. Functional Ecology 31:1312–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nystrom M (2004) Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429:827–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biggs T, Messina A (2016) Sediment accumulation and composition on coral reefs in Faga’alu Bay. American Samoa, San Diego, p 25Google Scholar
  10. Biggs T, Messina A, McCormick G, Curtis M (2017) Expanding Monitoring and Modeling of Land-Based Source of Pollution to Priority Coral Reefs in American Samoa. San Diego State University, San Diego, p 25Google Scholar
  11. Bohnsack JA, Bannerot SP (1986) A Stationary Visual Census Technique for Quantitatively Assessing Community Structure of Coral Reef Fishes National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Report NMFS 41. U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service Washington, D.C. 15Google Scholar
  12. Brodie J, Pearson RG (2016) Ecosystem health of the Great Barrier Reef: Time for effective management action based on evidence. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 183:438–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brodie JE, Mitchell AW (2005) Nutrients in Australian tropical rivers: changes with agricultural development and implications for receiving environments. Marine and Freshwater Research 56:279–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brodie JE, Kroon FJ, Schaffelke B, Wolanski EC, Lewis SE, Devlin MJ, Bohnet IC, Bainbridge ZT, Waterhouse J, Davis AM (2012) Terrestrial pollutant runoff to the Great Barrier Reef: An update of issues, priorities and management responses. Marine Pollution Bulletin 65:81–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown CJ, Jupiter SD, Lin HY, Albert S, Klein C, Maina JM, Tulloch VJD, Wenger AS, Mumby PJ (2017a) Habitat change mediates the response of coral reef fish populations to terrestrial run-off. Marine Ecology Progress Series 576:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown CJ, Jupiter SD, Albert S, Klein CJ, Mangubhai S, Maina JM, Mumby P, Olley J, Stewart-Koster B, Tulloch V, Wenger A (2017b) Tracing the influence of land-use change on water quality and coral reefs using a Bayesian model. Sci Rep 7:4740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A (2011) Reefs at Risk Revisited. Word Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., USA, p 114Google Scholar
  18. Caraco NF, Cole JJ (1999) Human impact on nitrate export: an analysis using major world rivers. Ambio 28:167–170Google Scholar
  19. Caraco NF, Caraco NF, Cole JJ, Cole JJ (2001) Human influence on nitrogen export: a comparison of mesic and xeric catchments. Marine and Freshwater Research 52:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chong-Seng KM, Mannering TD, Pratchett MS, Bellwood DR, Graham NAJ (2012) The Influence of Coral Reef Benthic Condition on Associated Fish Assemblages. PLOS ONE 7:e42167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clarke KR, Gorley RN (2015) PRIMER v7: User Manual/Tutorial. PRIMER-E, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  22. Coker DJ, Wilson SK, Pratchett MS (2014) Importance of live coral habitat for reef fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 24:89–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooper TF, Gilmour JP, Fabricius KE (2009) Bioindicators of changes in water quality on coral reefs: review and recommendations for monitoring programmes. Coral Reefs 28:589–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cornish AS, DiDonato EM (2004) Resurvey of a reef flat in American Samoa after 85 years reveals devastation to a soft coral (Alcyonacea) community. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48:768–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De’ath G, Fabricius K (2010) Water quality as a regional driver of coral biodiversity and macroalgae on the Great Barrier Reef. Ecological Applications 20:840–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DeMartini E, Jokiel PL, Beets J, Stender Y, Storlazzi CD, Minton D, Conklin E (2013) Terrigenous sediment impact on coral recruitment and growth affects the use of coral habitat by recruit parrotfishes (F. Scaridae). Journal of Coastal Conservation 17:417–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DiDonato GT (2004) Developing an Initial Watershed Classification for American Samoa Report to the American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency, Pago Pago. American Samoa, American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency, p 14Google Scholar
  28. DiDonato GT, DiDonato EM, Smith LM, Harwell LC, Summers JK (2009) Assessing coastal waters of american samoa: Territory-wide water quality data provide a critical “big-picture” view for this tropical archipelago. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 150:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dumont E, Harrison JA, Kroeze C, Bakker EJ, Seitzinger SP (2005) Global distribution and sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export to the coastal zone: Results from a spatially explicit, global model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19Google Scholar
  30. Fabricius K, De’ath G, McCook L, Turak E, Williams DM (2005) Changes in algal, coral and fish assemblages along water quality gradients on the inshore Great Barrier Reef. Mar Pollut Bull 51:384–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fabricius KE (2005) Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: review and synthesis. Mar Pollut Bull 50:125–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fabricius KE, Logan M, Weeks S, Brodie J (2014) The effects of river run-off on water clarity across the central Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 84:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fabricius KE, Logan M, Weeks SJ, Lewis SE, Brodie J (2016) Changes in water clarity in response to river discharges on the Great Barrier Reef continental shelf: 2002–2013. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 173:A1–A15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fabricius KE, Cooper TF, Humphrey C, Uthicke S, De’ath G, Davidson J, LeGrand H, Thompson A, Schaffelke B (2012) A bioindicator system for water quality on inshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 65:320–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fenner D (2013) Results of the Territorial Coral Reef Monitoring Program of American Samoa for 2012. Benthic Section Report to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Coral Reef Advisory Group (CRAG) and NOAA, Pago Pago, p 112Google Scholar
  36. Fredston-Hermann A, Brown CJ, Albert S, Klein CJ, Mangubhai S, Nelson JL, Teneva L, Wenger A, Gaines SD, Halpern BS (2016) Where Does River Runoff Matter for Coastal Marine Conservation? Frontiers in Marine Science 3Google Scholar
  37. Friedlander AM, Brown EK, Jokiel PL, Smith WR, Rodgers KS (2003) Effects of habitat, wave exposure, and marine protected area status on coral reef fish assemblages in the Hawaiian archipelago. Coral Reefs 22:291–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fulton CJ, Bellwood DR (2004) Wave exposure, swimming performance, and the structure of tropical and temperate reef fish assemblages. Marine Biology 144:429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fulton CJ, Bellwood DR, Wainwright PC (2005) Wave energy and swimming performance shape coral reef fish assemblages. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272:827–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goodell W, Stamoulis KA, Friedlander AM (2018) Coupling remote sensing with in situ surveys to determine reef fish habitat associations for the design of marine protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 588:121–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gorospe KD, Donahue MJ, Heenan A, Gove JM, Williams ID, Brainard RE (2018) Local Biomass Baselines and the Recovery Potential for Hawaiian Coral Reef Fish Communities. Frontiers in Marine Science 5Google Scholar
  42. Graham NAJ, Nash KL (2013) The importance of structural complexity in coral reef ecosystems. Coral Reefs 32:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Green AL (2002) Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long-term monitoring sites (benthic communities, fish communities, and key macroinvertebrates) Report Prepared for the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources American Samoa 86Google Scholar
  44. Grigg RW (1983) Comunity structure, succession and development of coral reefs in Hawaii. Marine Ecology Progress Series 11:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Halpern BS, Kappel CV (2012) Extinction Risk in a Changing Ocean. In: Hannan L (ed) Saving a Milion Species: Extinction Risk from Climate Change. Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp 285–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Halpern BS, Frazier M, Potapenko J, Casey KS, Koenig K, Longo C, Lowndes JS, Rockwood RC, Selig ER, Selkoe KA, Walbridge S (2015) Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world’s ocean. Nature Communications 6:7615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D’Agrosa C, Bruno JF, Casey KS, Ebert C, Fox HE, Fujita R, Heinemann D, Lenihan HS, Madin EMP, Perry MT, Selig ER, Spalding M, Steneck R, Watson R (2008) A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems. Science 319:948–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hamilton RJ, Almany GR, Brown CJ, Pita J, Peterson NA, Howard Choat J (2017) Logging degrades nursery habitat for an iconic coral reef fish. Biological Conservation 210:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hart AM, Russ GR (1996) Response of herbivorous fishes to crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci outbreaks. III. Age, growth, mortality and maturity indices of Acanthurus nigrofuscus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 136:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heenan A, Hoey AS, Williams GJ, Williams ID (2016) Natural bounds on herbivorous coral reef fishes. Proc Biol Sci 283Google Scholar
  51. Hess S, Wenger AS, Ainsworth TD, Rummer JL (2015) Exposure of clownfish larvae to suspended sediment levels found on the Great Barrier Reef: Impacts on gill structure and microbiome. Sci Rep 5:10561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hess S, Prescott LJ, Hoey AS, McMahon SA, Wenger AS, Rummer JL (2017) Species-specific impacts of suspended sediments on gill structure and function in coral reef fishes. Proc Biol Sci 284Google Scholar
  53. Holst Rice S, Messina A, Biggs T, Vargas-Angel B, Whitall D (2016) Baseline Assessment of Faga’alu Watershed: A Ridge to Reef Assessment in Support of Sediment Reduction Activities and Future Evaluation of their Success NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP. NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, Silver Spring, Maryland, p 44Google Scholar
  54. Houk P (2006) Assessing the Effects of Non-Point Source Pollution on American Samoa’s Coral Reef Communities II American Samoa’s Coral Reefs and Non-Point Source Pollution II. American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency 30Google Scholar
  55. Houk P, Van Woesik R (2010) Coral assemblages and reef growth in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (Western Pacific Ocean). Marine Ecology 31:318–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Houk P, Benavente D, Johnson S (2013) Watershed-based coral reef monitoring across Tutuila, American Samoa: Summary of decadal trends and 2013 assessment Monitoring program partnership between the American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency, Pacific Marine Resources Institute, and the University of Guam Marine Laboratory. American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency 37Google Scholar
  57. Houk P, DiDonato GT, Iguel J, Van Woesik R (2005) Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on american samoa’s coral reef communities. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 107:11–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Houk P, Camacho R, Johnson S, McLean M, Maxin S, Anson J, Joseph E, Nedlic O, Luckymis M, Adams K, Hess D, Kabua E, Yalon A, Buthung E, Graham C, Leberer T, Taylor B, van Woesik R (2015) The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback. PLOS ONE 10:e0130823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hughes TP, Bellwood DR, Folke CS, McCook LJ, Pandolfi JM (2007a) No-take areas, herbivory and coral reef resilience. Trends Ecol Evol 22:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hughes TP, Rodrigues MJ, Bellwood DR, Ceccarelli D, Hoegh-Guldberg O, McCook L, Moltschaniwskyj N, Pratchett MS, Steneck RS, Willis B (2007b) Phase Shifts, Herbivory, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs to Climate Change. Current Biology 17:360–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hughes TP, Barnes ML, Bellwood DR, Cinner JE, Cumming GS, Jackson JBC, Kleypas J, van de Leemput IA, Lough JM, Morrison TH, Palumbi SR, van Nes EH, Scheffer M (2017) Coral reefs in the Anthropocene. Nature 546:82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. (IUCN) IUfCoN (2017) Ridge to ReefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jenness J, Houk P (2014) UOGML Wave Energy ArcGIS Extension. University of Guam Marine LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  64. Kohler KE, Gill SM (2006) Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe): A Visual Basic program for the determination of coral and substrate coverage using random point count methodology. Computers and Geosciences 32:1259–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Littler MM, Littler DS, Brooks BL (2006) Harmful algae on tropical coral reefs: Bottom-up eutrophication and top-down herbivory. Harmful Algae 5:565–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu Z, Gurr N, Schmaedick M, Fischer L (2011) American Samoa vegetation mapping 2011. USDA forestry service state and private forestry, Forest health monitoring program in the Pacific Southwest Region, American Samoa community college forestry program, Division of community and natural resourcesGoogle Scholar
  67. McCook LJ (1999) Macroalgae, nutrients and phase shifts on coral reefs: scientific issues and management consequences for the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 18:357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McLean M, Cuetos-Bueno J, Nedlic O, Luckymiss M, Houk P (2016) Local Stressors, Resilience, and Shifting Baselines on Coral Reefs. PLOS ONE 11:e0166319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Messina AM, Biggs TW (2016) Contributions of human activities to suspended sediment yield during storm events from a small, steep, tropical watershed. Journal of Hydrology 538:726–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mumby PJ, Bejarano S, Golbuu Y, Steneck RS, Arnold SN, van Woesik R, Friedlander AM (2013) Empirical relationships among resilience indicators on Micronesian reefs. Coral Reefs 32:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nimbus E, Services (2016) American SAmoa Reef Flats Project Report US EPA National Coastal Assessment 2015. American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency 86Google Scholar
  72. Oliver LM, Lehrter JC, Fisher WS (2011) Relating landscape development intensity to coral reef condition in the watersheds of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series 427:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peierls BL, Caraco NF, Pace ML, Cole JJ (1991) Human influence on river nitrogen. Nature 350:386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Polidoro BA, Comeros-Raynal MT, Cahill T, Clement C (2017) Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa. Mar Pollut Bull 116:501–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pratchett MS, Hoey AS, Wilson SK (2014) Reef degradation and the loss of critical ecosystem goods and services provided by coral reef fishes. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 7:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pratchett MS, Hoey AS, Wilson SK, Messmer V, Graham NAJ (2011) Changes in Biodiversity and Functioning of Reef Fish Assemblages following Coral Bleaching and Coral Loss. Diversity 3Google Scholar
  77. Richardson LE, Graham NAJ, Pratchett MS, Hoey AS (2017) Structural complexity mediates functional structure of reef fish assemblages among coral habitats. Environmental Biology of Fishes 100:193–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rodgers KS, Kido MH, Jokiel PL, Edmonds T, Brown EK (2012) Use of integrated landscape indicators to evaluate the health of linked watersheds and coral reef environments in the Hawaiian islands. Environ Manage 50:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rodgers K, Jokiel PL, Bird CE, Brown EK (2010) Quantifying the condition of Hawaiian coral reefs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20:93–105Google Scholar
  80. Roff G, Chollett I, Doropoulos C, Golbuu Y, Steneck RS, Isechal AL, van Woesik R, Mumby PJ (2015) Exposure-driven macroalgal phase shift following catastrophic disturbance on coral reefs. Coral Reefs 34:715–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Roff G, Bejarano S, Priest M, Marshell A, Chollett I, Steneck RS, Doropoulos C, Golbuu Y, Mumby PJ (2018) Seascapes as drivers of herbivore assemblages in coral reef ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 0Google Scholar
  82. Rude J, Minks A, Doheny B, Tyner M, Maher K, Huffard C, Hidayat NI, Grantham H (2016) Ridge to reef modelling for use within land–sea planning under data-limited conditions. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 26:251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Russ GR, Questel S-LA, Rizzari JR, Alcala AC (2015) The parrotfish–coral relationship: refuting the ubiquity of a prevailing paradigm. Marine Biology 162:2029–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. SEAL Analytical (2011a) Ammonia in Water and Seawater AutoAnalyzer Method No G-171-96 Rev 14 (Multitest MT19). SEAL Analytical 8Google Scholar
  85. SEAL Analytical (2011b) Nitrate and Nitrite in Water and Seawater Total Nitrogen in Persulfate Digests AutoAnalyzer Method No G-172-96 Rev 15 Multitest MT 19. SEAL Analytical 11Google Scholar
  86. Smith JE, Hunter CL, Smith CM (2010) The effects of top-down versus bottom-up control on benthic coral reef community structure. Oecologia 163:497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sudek M, Lawrence A (2016) American Samoa Coral Reef Monitoring Program Progress Report FY13/14 Report to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Coral Reef Advisory Group and NOAA. Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources 51Google Scholar
  88. Taylor BM, Choat JH (2014) Comparative demography of commercially important parrotfish species from Micronesia. J Fish Biol 84:383–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Taylor BM, Lindfield SJ, Choat JH (2015) Hierarchical and scale-dependent effects of fishing pressure and environment on the structure and size distribution of parrotfish communities. Ecography 38:520–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Teichberg M, Wild C, Bednarz VN, Kegler HF, Lukman M, Gärdes AA, Heiden JP, Weiand L, Abu N, Nasir A, Miñarro S, Ferse SCA, Reuter H, Plass-Johnson JG (2018) Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Coral Reef Communities of the Spermonde Archipelago, 2012–2014, I: Comprehensive Reef Monitoring of Water and Benthic Indicators Reflect Changes in Reef Health. Frontiers in Marine Science 5Google Scholar
  91. Tuitele C, Tuiasosopo J, Faaiuaso S (2016a) Watershed Classification Update for American Samoa American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency. Pago Pago, American Samoa, p 12Google Scholar
  92. Tuitele C, Tuiasosopo J, Faaiuaso S, Buchan E (2015) American Samoa Watershed Management and Protection Program FY15 Annual Report. American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency, American Samoa, p 51Google Scholar
  93. Tuitele C, Tuiasosopo J, Faaiuaso S, Buchan E (2016b) American Samoa Watershed Management and Protection Program FY15 Annual Report. American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency 51Google Scholar
  94. Tuitele C, Buchan E, Regis J, Tuiasosopo J, Faaiuaso S, Soli S (2016c) Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report. In: Agency ASEP (ed). American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency 63Google Scholar
  95. Waterhouse J, Brodie J, Lewis S, D-m A (2016) Land-sea connectivity, ecohydrology and holistic management of the Great Barrier Reef and its catchments: time for a change. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology 16:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Waterhouse J, Schaffelke B, Bartley R, Eberhard R, Brodie J, Star M, Thorburn P, Rolfe J, Ronan M, Taylor B, Kroon F (2017) 2017 Scientific Consensus Statement Land Use Impacts on Great Barrier Reef Water Quality and Ecosystem Condition. Queensland Government 18Google Scholar
  97. Wenger AS, Johansen JL, Jones GP (2012) Increasing suspended sediment reduces foraging, growth and condition of a planktivorous damselfish. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 428:43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wenger AS, Whinney J, Taylor B, Kroon F (2016) The impact of individual and combined abiotic factors on daily otolith growth in a coral reef fish. Scientific Reports 6:28875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wenger AS, Harvey E, Wilson S, Rawson C, Newman SJ, Clarke D, Saunders BJ, Browne N, Travers MJ, McIlwain JL, Erftemeijer PLA, Hobbs J-PA, McLean D, Depczynski M, Evans RD (2017) A critical analysis of the direct effects of dredging on fish. Fish and Fisheries 18:967–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Williams GJ, Smith JE, Conklin EJ, Gove JM, Sala E, Sandin SA (2013) Benthic communities at two remote Pacific coral reefs: effects of reef habitat, depth, and wave energy gradients on spatial patterns. PeerJ 1:e81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Williams ID, Baum JK, Heenan A, Hanson KM, Nadon MO, Brainard RE (2015) Human, Oceanographic and Habitat Drivers of Central and Western Pacific Coral Reef Fish Assemblages. PLOS ONE 10:e0120516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wilson SK, Graham NAJ, Pratchett MS, Jones GP, Polunin NVC (2006) Multiple disturbances and the global degradation of coral reefs: are reef fishes at risk or resilient? Global Change Biology 12:2220–2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wooldridge S, Brodie J, Furnas M (2006) Exposure of inner-shelf reefs to nutrient enriched runoff entering the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon: Post-European changes and the design of water quality targets. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:1467–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Coral Reef Advisory GroupDepartment of Marine and Wildlife ResourcesPago PagoUSA
  3. 3.National Marine Sanctuary of American SamoaPago PagoUSA
  4. 4.American Samoa Environmental Protection AgencyPago PagoUSA
  5. 5.UOG StationUniversity of Guam Marine LaboratoryMangilaoUSA

Personalised recommendations