Coral Reefs

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Growth rates of Porites astreoides and Orbicella franksi in mesophotic habitats surrounding St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands

  • Sarah H. Groves
  • Daniel M. Holstein
  • Ian C. Enochs
  • Graham Kolodzeij
  • Derek P. Manzello
  • Marilyn E. Brandt
  • Tyler B. Smith
Report

Abstract

Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) are deep (> 30 m), light-dependent communities that are abundant in many parts of the global ocean. MCEs are potentially connected to shallow reefs via larval exchange and may act as refuges for reef organisms. However, MCE community level recovery after disturbance, and thus, community resilience, are poorly understood components of their capacity as refuges. To assess the potential for disturbance and growth to drive community structure on MCEs with differential biophysical conditions and coral communities, we collected colonies of Orbicella franksi and Porites astreoides and used computerized tomography to quantify calcification. The divergence of coral growth rates in MCEs with different environmental conditions may be species specific; habitat-forming O. franksi have slow and consistent growth rates of ~ 0.2 cm yr−1 below 30 m, regardless of mesophotic habitat, compared to ~ 1.0 cm yr−1 in shallow-water habitats. Slow skeletal growth rates in MCEs suggest that rates of recovery from disturbance will likely also be slow. Localized buffering of MCEs from the stressors affecting shallow reefs is therefore crucial to the long-term capacity of these sites to serve as refugia, given that skeletal extension and recovery from disturbance in MCEs will be significantly slower than on shallow reefs.

Keywords

Mesophotic coral ecosystems Sclerochronology Refugia Shelf edge reefs Orbicella spp. 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank N. Fogarty, R. Ennis, J. Keller, R. Brewer, V. Brandtneris, S. Prosterman, I. Byrne and J. Jossart. This work was supported by the Black Coral Penalty and Community Service Funds, VI EPSCoR (NSF #0814417) and the NSF S-STEM Scholarship. This research was conducted under the Virgin Islands Department of Planning and Natural Resources (VI DPNR) permit #DFW15066T.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Marine Spatial Ecology DivisionNational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationBeaufortUSA
  2. 2.Duke University Marine Laboratory, Nicholas School of the EnvironmentDuke UniversityBeaufortUSA
  3. 3.Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML)NOAAMiamiUSA
  4. 4.Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  5. 5.Center for Marine and Environmental StudiesUniversity of the Virgin IslandsSt. ThomasUSA
  6. 6.Department of Oceanography & Coastal SciencesCollege of the Coast & Environment Louisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

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