Advertisement

Coral Reefs

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 37–53 | Cite as

Reef-scale modeling of coral calcification responses to ocean acidification and sea-level rise

  • Takashi Nakamura
  • Kazuo Nadaoka
  • Atsushi Watanabe
  • Takahiro Yamamoto
  • Toshihiro Miyajima
  • Ariel C. Blanco
Report

Abstract

To predict coral responses to future environmental changes at the reef scale, the coral polyp model (Nakamura et al. in Coral Reefs 32:779–794, 2013), which reconstructs coral responses to ocean acidification, flow conditions and other factors, was incorporated into a reef-scale three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model. This coupled reef-scale model was compared to observations from the Shiraho fringing reef, Ishigaki Island, Japan, where the model accurately reconstructed spatiotemporal variation in reef hydrodynamic and geochemical parameters. The simulated coral calcification rate exhibited high spatial variation, with lower calcification rates in the nearshore and stagnant water areas due to isolation of the inner reef at low tide, and higher rates on the offshore side of the inner reef flat. When water is stagnant, bottom shear stress is low at night and thus oxygen diffusion rate from ambient water to the inside of the coral polyp limits respiration rate. Thus, calcification decreases because of the link between respiration and calcification. A scenario analysis was conducted using the reef-scale model with several pCO2 and sea-level conditions based on IPCC (Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013) scenarios. The simulation indicated that the coral calcification rate decreases with increasing pCO2. On the other hand, sea-level rise increases the calcification rate, particularly in the nearshore and the areas where water is stagnant at low tide under present conditions, as mass exchange, especially oxygen exchange at night, is enhanced between the corals and their ambient seawater due to the reduced stagnant period. When both pCO2 increase and sea-level rise occur concurrently, the calcification rate generally decreases due to the effects of ocean acidification. However, the calcification rate in some inner-reef areas will increase because the positive effects of sea-level rise offset the negative effects of ocean acidification, and total calcification rate will be positive only under the best-case scenario (RCP 2.6).

Keywords

Numerical simulation Calcification rate Coral polyp model Hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model Ocean acidification Sea-level rise 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. H. Kayanne, Dr. H. Kurihara, Prof. Y. Suzuki, Dr. S. Yamamoto, and Mr. L. P. C. Bernardo for their helpful comments and support. We thank anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on our manuscript. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Nos. 20121007, 21121501) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (Nos. 24246086, 25257305, 15H02268) from The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. 22740336) from JSPS, a Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research (No. 26610167) from JSPS, and the JSPS Japan-Philippines Research Cooperative Program.

Supplementary material

338_2017_1632_MOESM1_ESM.docx (211 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 211 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM2_ESM.gif (6.7 mb)
Animation S1 Time-dependent changes in significant wave height and wave direction (arrow) (GIF 6872 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM3_ESM.gif (8.3 mb)
Animation S2 Time-dependent changes in sea surface velocity (GIF 8528 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM4_ESM.gif (5.7 mb)
Animation S3 Time-dependent changes in sea surface temperature (GIF 5870 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM5_ESM.gif (4.7 mb)
Animation S4 Time-dependent changes in sea surface DIC (GIF 4851 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM6_ESM.gif (4.5 mb)
Animation S5 Time-dependent changes in sea surface TA (GIF 4652 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM7_ESM.gif (4.9 mb)
Animation S6 Time-dependent changes in sea surface DO (GIF 4985 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM8_ESM.gif (4.4 mb)
Animation S7 Time-dependent changes in sea surface pH (total scale) (GIF 4484 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM9_ESM.gif (5 mb)
Animation S8 Time-dependent changes in pCO2 in surface seawater (GIF 5073 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM10_ESM.gif (5.1 mb)
Animation S9 Time-dependent changes in sea surface aragonite saturation state (GIF 5256 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM11_ESM.gif (1.3 mb)
Animation S10 Time-dependent changes in polyp gross photosynthetic rate of inner reef corals under present conditions (GIF 1302 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM12_ESM.gif (2.4 mb)
Animation S11 Time-dependent changes in polyp respiration rate of inner reef corals under present conditions (GIF 2469 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM13_ESM.gif (2.1 mb)
Animation S12 Time-dependent changes in polyp net photosynthetic rate of inner reef corals under present conditions (GIF 2104 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM14_ESM.gif (2.5 mb)
Animation S13 Time-dependent changes in polyp calcification rate of inner reef corals under present conditions (GIF 2588 kb)
338_2017_1632_MOESM15_ESM.gif (2.3 mb)
Animation S14 Time-dependent changes in polyp stored organic carbon of inner reef corals under present conditions (GIF 2373 kb)

References

  1. Allemand D, Ferrier-Pagès C, Furla P, Houlbrèque F, Puverel S, Reynaud S, Tambutté É, Tambutté S, Zoccola D (2004) Biomineralisation in reef-building corals: from molecular mechanisms to environmental control. Comptes Rendus Palevol 3:453–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanco AC, Watanabe A, Nadaoka K, Motooka S, Herrera EC, Yamamoto T (2011) Estimation of nearshore groundwater discharge and its potential effects on a fringing coral reef. Mar Pollut Bull 62:770–785CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Booij N, Ris RC, Holthuijsen LH (1999) A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. J Geophys Res 104:7649–7666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Britton CM, Dodd JD (1976) Relationships of photosynthetically active radiation and shortwave irradiance. Agric Meteorol 17:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chapman DC (1985) Numerical treatment of cross-shelf open boundaries in a barotropic coastal ocean model. J Phys Oceanogr 15:1060–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Comeau S, Edmunds PJ, Lantz CA, Carpenter RC (2014) Water flow modulates the response of coral reef communities to ocean acidification. Sci Rep 4:6681CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Fabricius KE (2005) Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: review and synthesis. Mar Pollut Bull 50:125–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Fabricius KE, Langdon C, Uthicke S, Humphrey C, Noonan S, De’ath G, Okazaki R, Muehllehner N, Glas MS, Lough JM (2011) Losers and winners in coral reefs acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Nat Clim Chang 1:165–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Falter JL, Lowe RJ, Zhang Z (2016) Towards a universal mass-momentum transfer relationship for predicting nutrient uptake and metabolite exchange in benthic reef communities. Geophys Res Lett 43:9764–9772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Falter JL, Lowe RJ, Zhang Z, McCulloch M (2013) Physical and biological controls on the carbonate chemistry of coral reef waters: effects of metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, and geomorphology. PLoS One 8:e53303CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Flather RA (1976) A tidal model of the northwest European continental shelf. Memoires de la Societe Royale de Sciences de Liege 6:141–164Google Scholar
  12. García HE, Gordon LI (1992) Oxygen solubility in seawater: better fitting equations. Limnol Oceanogr 37:1307–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haidvogel DB, Arango H, Budgell WP, Cornuelle BD, Curchitser E, Di Lorenzo E, Fennel K, Geyer WR, Hermann AJ, Lanerolle L, Levin J, McWilliams JC, Miller AJ, Moore AM, Powell TM, Shchepetkin AF, Sherwood CR, Signell RP, Warner JC, Wilkin J (2008) Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System. J Comput Phys 227:3595–3624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoegh-Guldberg O (1999) Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Mar Freshw Res 50:839–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten aJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards aJ, Caldeira K, Knowlton N, Eakin CM, Iglesias-Prieto R, Muthiga N, Bradbury RH, Dubi A, Hatziolos ME (2007) Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318:1737–1742CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hohn S, Merico A (2012) Modelling coral polyp calcification in relation to ocean acidification. Biogeosciences 9:4441–4454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hohn S, Merico A (2015) Quantifying the relative importance of transcellular and paracellular ion transports to coral polyp calcification. Front Earth Sci 2:37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hongo C, Kayanne H (2009) Holocene coral reef development under windward and leeward locations at Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Sediment Geol 214:62–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Inoue S, Kayanne H, Yamamoto S, Kurihara H (2013) Spatial community shift from hard to soft corals in acidified water. Nat Clim Chang 3:683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Kan H, Kawana T (2006) “Catch-up” of a high-latitude barrier reef by back-reef growth during post-glacial sea-level rise, Southern Ryukyus, Japan. Proc 10th Int Coral Reef Symp 1:494–503Google Scholar
  22. Kawahata H, Yukino I, Suzuki A (2000) Terrestrial influences on the Shiraho fringing reef, Ishigaki Island, Japan: high carbon input relative to phosphate. Coral Reefs 19:172–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kayanne H, Hata H, Kudo S, Yamano H, Watanabe A, Ikeda Y, Nozaki K, Kato K, Negishi A, Saito H (2005) Seasonal and bleaching-induced changes in coral reef metabolism and CO2 flux. Global Biogeochem Cycles 19:3015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kayanne H, Kudo S, Hata H, Yamano H, Nozaki K, Kato K, Negishi A, Saito H, Akimoto F, Kimoto H (2008) Integrated monitoring system for coral reef water pCO2, carbonate system and physical parameters. Proc 9th Int Coral Reef Symp 2:1079–1084Google Scholar
  25. Lowe RJ, Falter JL, Monismith SG, Atkinson MJ (2009) Wave-driven circulation of a coastal resef–lagoon ystem. J Phys Oceanogr 39:873–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McConnaughey TA, Falk RH (1991) Calcium-proton exchange during algal calcification. Biol Bull 180:185–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. McConnaughey TA, Whelan JF (1997) Calcification generates protons for nutrient and bicarbonate uptake. Earth-Science Rev 42:95–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Monismith SG (2007) Hydrodynamics of coral reefs. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 39:37–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nakamura T, Nakamori T (2007) A geochemical model for coral reef formation. Coral Reefs 26:741–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nakamura T, Nakamori T (2009) Estimation of photosynthesis and calcification rates at a fringing reef by accounting for diurnal variations and the zonation of coral reef communities on reef flat and slope: a case study for the Shiraho reef, Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan. Coral Reefs 28:229–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nakamura T, Nakamori T (2011) A simulation model for coral reef formation: reef topographies and growth patterns responding to relative sea-level histories. In: Wright LL (ed) Sea level rise, coastal engineering, shorelines and tides. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, pp 251–261Google Scholar
  32. Nakamura T, Nadaoka K, Watanabe A (2013) A coral polyp model of photosynthesis, respiration and calcification incorporating a transcellular ion transport mechanism. Coral Reefs 32:779–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Neumann AC, Macintyre I (1985) Reef response to sea level rise: keep-up, catch-up or give up. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Symp 3:105–110Google Scholar
  34. Ow YX, Collier CJ, Uthicke S (2015) Responses of three tropical seagrass species to CO2 enrichment. Mar Biol 162:1005–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Paringit EC, Nadaoka K (2012) Simultaneous estimation of benthic fractional cover and shallow water bathymetry in coral reef areas from high-resolution satellite images. Int J Remote Sens 33:3026–3047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shchepetkin AF, McWilliams JC (2005) The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): a split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model. Ocean Model 9:347–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Styles R, Glenn S (2000) Modeling stratified wave and current bottom boundary layers on the continental shelf. J Geophys Res 105:24119–24139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suzuki A, Nakamori T, Kayanne H (1995) The mechanism of production enhancement in coral reef carbonate systems: model and empirical results. Sediment Geol 99:259–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Taebi S, Lowe RJ, Pattiaratchi CB, Ivey GN, Symonds G (2012) A numerical study of the dynamics of the wave-driven circulation within a fringing reef system. Ocean Dyn 62:585–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tamura H, Nadaoka K, Paringit EC (2007) Hydrodynamic characteristics of a fringing coral reef on the east coast of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan. Coral Reefs 26:17–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Umezawa Y, Miyajima T, Yamamuro M, Kayanne H, Koike I (2002) Fine-scale mapping of land-derived nitrogen in coral reefs by δ15 N in macroalgae. Limnol Oceanogr 47:1405–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wanninkhof R (1992) Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange. J Geophys Res 97:7373–7382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Warner JC, Sherwood CR, Arango HG, Signell RP (2005) Performance of four turbulence closure models implemented using a generic length scale method. Ocean Model 8:81–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Warner JC, Defne Z, Haas K, Arango HG (2013) A wetting and drying scheme for ROMS. Comput Geosci 58:54–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Watanabe A, Yamamoto T, Nadaoka K, Maeda Y, Miyajima T, Tanaka Y, Blanco AC (2013) Spatiotemporal variations in CO2 flux in a fringing reef simulated using a novel carbonate system dynamics model. Coral Reefs 32:239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Weiss RF (1974) Carbon dioxide in water and seawater: the solubility of a non-ideal gas. Mar Chem 2:203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Willmott CJ (1981) On the validation of models. Phys Geogr 2:184–194Google Scholar
  48. Yamamoto S, Kayanne H, Tokoro T, Kuwae T, Watanabe A (2015) Total alkalinity flux in coral reefs estimated from eddy covariance and sediment pore-water profiles. Limnol Oceanogr 60:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yamamoto S, Kayanne H, Terai M, Watanabe A, Kato K, Negishi A, Nozaki K (2012) Threshold of carbonate saturation state determined by CO2 control experiment. Biogeosciences 9:1441–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang Z, Lowe R, Falter J, Ivey G (2011) A numerical model of wave- and current-driven nutrient uptake by coral reef communities. Ecol Modell 222:1456–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, School of Environment and SocietyTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Environment and Life Science Research CenterKuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchSalmiya, HawallyKuwait
  3. 3.Marine Biogeochemistry GroupAtmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of TokyoChibaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Geodetic Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of the Philippines DilimanQuezon CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations