Implication of the host TGFβ pathway in the onset of symbiosis between larvae of the coral Fungia scutaria and the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade C1f)
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Dinoflagellate–cnidarian associations form both the trophic and structural foundation of coral-reef ecosystems. Previous studies have highlighted the role of host innate immunity in regulation of these partnerships. This study reveals the presence of a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) in the coral Fungia scutaria that clusters with TGFβ sensu stricto (ss) from other animals. In functional studies of F. scutaria larvae, we show that (1) TGFβ ss mRNA is expressed during early stages of development prior to the onset of symbiosis; (2) apparent interference of the TGFβ pathway impairs the onset of symbiosis; and (3) this effect is associated with an increase of cytotoxic nitric oxide secretion, an immune response. This work highlights the importance of the TGFβ pathway in early life-history stages of corals by suggesting that its inhibition impacts the onset of symbiosis.
KeywordsTransforming growth factor beta Cnidarian Coral bleaching Dinoflagellate Symbiodinium Symbiosis
We thank Jennifer Matthews, Ashley Sproles, Mary Hagedorn, Virginia L. Carter, and Ruth Gates for providing assistance in the field, equipment, and laboratory space. This is Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology contribution #1476. This work has been supported by National Science Foundation Grants to VMW (IOB0542452 and IOB0919073). The 2014 field trip was financed by crowdfunding support to the Coral Guardian NGO foundation. We thank Eric Henry and Eric Rottinger for their help on the redaction as well as Benoit Miel-Istria, Sandrine Convertino, Marie-Christine Rocci, Cristiana Bontemps, and Mariella Coste.
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