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Coral Reefs

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 861–872 | Cite as

Localised hydrodynamics influence vulnerability of coral communities to environmental disturbances

  • George Shedrawi
  • James L. Falter
  • Kim J. Friedman
  • Ryan J. Lowe
  • Morgan S. Pratchett
  • Christopher J. Simpson
  • Conrad W. Speed
  • Shaun K. Wilson
  • Zhenlin Zhang
Report

Abstract

The movement of water can have a significant influence on the vulnerability of hermatypic corals to environmental disturbances such as cyclone damage, heat stress and anoxia. Here, we explore the relationship between small reef-scale water circulation patterns and measured differences in the abundance, composition and vulnerability of coral assemblages over decades. Changes in coral cover and community structure within Bill’s Bay (Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia) over a 22-yr period, during which multiple disturbance events (including mass bleaching, anoxia, and tropical cyclones) have impacted the area, were compared with spatial variation in water residence times (WRT). We found that reef sites associated with longer water residence times (WRT >15 h) experienced higher rates of coral mortality during acute environmental disturbances compared to reef sites with shorter WRT. Shifts in coral community composition from acroporid to faviid-dominated assemblages were also more prominent at sites with long WRT compared to reef sites with shorter WRT, although shifts in community composition were also observed at sites close to shore. Interestingly, these same long-WRT sites also tended to have the fastest recovery rates so that coral cover was returned to original levels of approximately 20% over two decades. This study provides empirical evidence that spatial patterns in water circulation and flushing can influence the resilience of coral communities, thus identifying areas sensitive to emerging threats associated with global climate change.

Keywords

Climate change Coral-reef dynamics Disturbance Recovery Hydrodynamics Marine protected area 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Department of Parks and Wildlife Exmouth regional office for their support of research and monitoring within the World Heritage Ningaloo Marine Park. Comments from the editor and two anonymous reviewers and Dr. Rebecca Fisher greatly improved the manuscript.

Supplementary material

338_2017_1576_MOESM1_ESM.eps (11 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (EPS 11 kb)
338_2017_1576_MOESM2_ESM.docx (53 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 54 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Shedrawi
    • 1
  • James L. Falter
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Kim J. Friedman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ryan J. Lowe
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Morgan S. Pratchett
    • 5
  • Christopher J. Simpson
    • 1
  • Conrad W. Speed
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shaun K. Wilson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhenlin Zhang
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Parks and Wildlife, Science and Conservation DivisionMarine Science ProgramKensingtonAustralia
  2. 2.The UWA Oceans InstituteCrawleyAustralia
  3. 3.School of Earth and EnvironmentUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  4. 4.ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  5. 5.ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

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