Advertisement

Coral Reefs

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 751–763 | Cite as

Hyperstability masks declines in bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) populations

  • Richard J. Hamilton
  • Glenn R. Almany
  • Don Stevens
  • Michael Bode
  • John Pita
  • Nate A. Peterson
  • J. Howard Choat
Highlighted Article

Abstract

Bolbometopon muricatum, the largest species of parrotfish, is a functionally important species that is characterised by the formation of aggregations for foraging, reproductive, and sleeping behaviours. Aggregations are restricted to shallow reef habitats, the locations of which are often known to local fishers. Bolbometopon muricatum fisheries are therefore vulnerable to overfishing and are likely to exhibit hyperstability, the maintenance of high catch per unit effort (CPUE) while population abundance declines. In this study, we provide a clear demonstration of hyperstable dynamics in a commercial B. muricatum fishery in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Initially, we used participatory mapping to demarcate the Kia fishing grounds into nine zones that had experienced different historic levels of fishing pressure. We then conducted comprehensive underwater visual census (UVC) and CPUE surveys across these zones over a 21-month period in 2012–2013. The individual sites for replicate UVC surveys were selected using a generalised random tessellation stratified variable probability design, while CPUE surveys involved trained provincial fisheries officers and local spearfishers. A comparison of fishery-independent abundance data and fishery-dependent CPUE data indicate extreme hyperstability, with CPUE maintained as B. muricatum abundance declines towards zero. Hyperstability may explain the sudden collapses of many B. muricatum spear fisheries across the Pacific and highlights the limitations of using data-poor fisheries assessment methods to evaluate the status of commercially valuable coral reef fishes that form predicable aggregations.

Keywords

Aggregations Bolbometopon muricatum Coral reef fisheries Data-poor assessments Hyperstability Collapse 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Kia House of Chiefs, Isabel Provincial Government, Solomon Islands Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources and Solomon Islands Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology for supporting this work. Special acknowledgments go to all of the Kia district spearfishers who partook in this research; this study would have been impossible without your interest and support. We thank W. Dolava, M. Giningele, P. Kame, A. Kokoe, H. Kokoe, and M. Vaka for assisting with data collection. We also thank C. Gereniu, W. Enota, P. Jay, F. Kavali, T. Leve, P. Lomae, L. Madada, D. Motui, J. Pai, G. Tavake, J. Ulo, and R. Zama for partaking in the UVC survey. Finally, we thank B. Erisman, Y. Sadovy de Mitcheson, S. Lindfield, and an anonymous reviewer for making improvements on an earlier version of this manuscript. The bumphead parrotfish study was completed with support from The Asian Development Bank (ADB TA-7753).

References

  1. Almany GR, Hamilton RJ, Matawai M, Kichawen P (2015) Local benefits from community actions: small managed areas can help rebuild and sustain some coastal fisheries. SPC Tradit Mar Resour Manag Knowl Bull 35:3–17Google Scholar
  2. Almany GR, Hamilton RJ, Williamson DH, Evans RD, Jones GP, Matawai M, Potuku T, Rhodes KL, Russ GR, Sawynok B (2010) Getting communities involved in marine protected area research: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia. Coral Reefs 29:567–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andréfouët S, Muller-Karger FE, Robinson JA, Kranenburg CJ, Torres-Pulliza D, Spraggins SA, Murch B (2006) Global assessment of modern coral reef extent and diversity for regional science and management applications: a view from space. Proc 10th Int Coral Reef Symp 2:1732–1745Google Scholar
  4. Andrew NL, Bene C, Hall SJ, Allison EH, Heck S, Ratner BD (2007) Diagnosis and management of small-scale fisheries in developing countries. Fish Fish 8:227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews AH, Choat JH, Hamilton RJ, DeMartini EE (2015) Refined bomb radiocarbon dating of two iconic fishes of the Great Barrier Reef. Mar Freshw Res 66:305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aswani S, Hamilton RJ (2004) Integrating indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure with marine and social science for conservation of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands. Environ Conserv 31:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellwood DR, Hoey AS, Choat JH (2003) Limited functional redundancy in high diversity systems: resilience and ecosystem function on coral reefs. Ecol Lett 6:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brewer TD, Cinner JE, Green A, Pandolfi JM (2009) Thresholds and multiple scale interaction of environment, resource use, and market proximity on reef fishery resources in the Solomon Islands. Biol Conserv 142:1797–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brewer TD, Cinner JE, Green A, Pressey RL (2013) Effects of human population density and proximity to markets on coral reef fishes vulnerable to extinction by fishing. Conserv Biol 27:443–452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brierley AS, Cox MJ (2015) Fewer but not smaller schools in declining fish and krill populations. Curr Biol 25:75–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark M (2001) Are deepwater fisheries sustainable?—the example of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) in New Zealand. Fish Res 51:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choat JH (2012) Spawning aggregations in reef fishes; ecological and evolutionary processes. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson YS, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, vol 35. Springer Fish and Fisheries Series, Springer Science + Business Media, pp 85–116Google Scholar
  13. Cordy CB (1993) An extension of the Horvitz–Thompson theorem to point sampling from a continuous universe. Stat Probab Lett 18:353–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Domeier ML (2012) Revisiting spawning aggregations: definitions and challenges. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson YS, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, vol 35. Springer Fish and Fisheries Series, Springer Science + Business Media, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  15. Domeier ML, Colin PL (1997) Tropical reef fish spawning aggregations: defined and reviewed. Bull Mar Sci 60:698–726Google Scholar
  16. Dulvy NK, Polunin NVC (2004) Using informal knowledge to infer human-induced rarity of a conspicuous reef fish. Anim Conserv 7:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Erisman BE, Allen LG, Claisse JT, Pondella DJ, Miller EF, Murray JH (2011) The illusion of plenty: hyperstability masks collapses in two recreational fisheries that target fish spawning aggregations. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 68:1705–1716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Froese R (2004) Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish Fish 5:86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Green AL, Maypa AP, Almany GR, Rhodes KL, Weeks R, Abesamis RA, Gleason MG, Mumby PJ, White AT (2015) Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design. Biol Rev 90:1215–1247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Halpern BS, Selkoe KA, White C, Albert S, Aswani S, Lauer M (2013) Marine protected areas and resilience to sedimentation in the Solomon Islands. Coral Reefs 32:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamilton R (2003) A report on the current status of exploited reef fish aggregations in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea–Choiseul, Ysabel, Bougainville and Manus Provinces. Western Pacific Fisher Survey Series, Society for the conservation of reef fish aggregations. www.scrfa.org, p 52
  22. Hamilton RJ (2005) The demographics of bumphead Parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in lightly and heavily fished regions of the Western Solomon Islands. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, p 273Google Scholar
  23. Hamilton RJ, Choat JH (2012) Bumphead parrotfish: Bolbometopon muricatum. In: de Mitcheson YS, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, vol. 35. Springer Fish and Fisheries Series, Springer Science + Business Media, pp 490–496Google Scholar
  24. Hamilton RJ, Adams S, Choat JH (2008) Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands. Coral Reefs 27:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hamilton R, Sadovy de Mitcheson YS, Aguilar-Perera A (2012a) The role of local ecological knowledge in the conservation and management of reef fish spawning aggregations. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson YS, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, vol 35. Springer Fish and Fisheries Series, Springer Science + Business Media, pp 331–370Google Scholar
  26. Hamilton RJ, Giningele M, Aswani S, Ecochard JL (2012b) Fishing in the dark—local knowledge, night spearfishing and spawning aggregations in the Western Solomon Islands. Biol Conserv 145:246–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harley SJ, Myers RA, Dunn A (2001) Is catch-per-unit-effort proportional to abundance? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:1760–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hilborn R, Walters CJ (eds) (1992) Quantitative fisheries stock assessment: choice, dynamics and uncertainty. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Hilborn R, Ovando D (2014) Reflections on the success of traditional fisheries management. ICES J Mar Sci 71:1040–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Horvitz DG, Thompson DJ (1952) A generalization of sampling without replacement from a finite universe. J Am Stat Assoc 47:663–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hutchings JA (1996) Spatial and temporal variation in the density of northern cod and a review of hypotheses for the stock’s collapse. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:943–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kobayashi D, Friedlander A, Grimes C, Nichols R, Zgliczynski B (2011) Bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) status review. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-PIFSC-26, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Hawaii, p 102Google Scholar
  33. Lindfield SJ, McIlwain JL, Harvey ES (2014) Depth refuge and the impacts of SCUBA spearfishing on coral reef fishes. PLoS One 9:e92628CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Martell S, Froese R (2013) A simple method for estimating MSY from catch and resilience. Fish Fish 14:504–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Neis B, Felt LF, Haedrich RL, Schneider DC (1999) An interdisciplinary method for collecting and integrating fishers’ ecological knowledge into resource management. In: Newell D, Ommer R (eds) Fishing places, fishing people: issues and traditions in Canadian small-scale fisheries. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp 217–238Google Scholar
  36. Pauly D, Hilborn R, Branch TA (2013) Fisheries: does catch reflect abundance? Nature 494:303–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Polloi K, Golbuu Y, Merep G, Koshiba S, Friedlander A, Koike H (2014) An assessment of Maml and Kemedukl in Palau and management recommendations. In: The nature conservancy micronesia program technical report No. 14-07, p 33Google Scholar
  38. Prince JD, Dowling NA, Davies CR, Campbell RA, Kolody DS (2011) A simple cost-effective and scale-less empirical approach to harvest strategies. ICES J Mar Sci 68:947–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Prince J, Hordyk A, Valencia SR, Loneragan N, Sainsbury K (2015) Revisiting the concept of Beverton-Holt life-history invariants with the aim of informing data-poor fisheries assessment. ICES J Mar Sci 72:194–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Richards LJ, Schnute JT (1986) An experimental and statistical approach to the question: is CPUE an index of abundance? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:1214–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Russell MW, Luckhurst BE, Lindeman KC (2012) Management of spawning aggregations. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson YS, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, vol 35. Springer Fish and Fisheries Series, Springer Science + Business Media, pp 371–404Google Scholar
  42. Russell MW, Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Erisman BE, Hamilton RJ, Luckhurst BE, Nemeth RS (2014) Status report—world’s fish aggregations 2014. Science and conservation of fish aggregations. International Coral Reef Initiative, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  43. Sadovy de Mitcheson YS, Erisman B (2012) Fishery and biological implications of fishing spawning aggregations, and the social and economic importance of aggregating fishes. In: Sadovy de Mitcheson YS, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, vol 35. Springer Fish and Fisheries Series, Springer Science + Business Media, pp 225–284Google Scholar
  44. Sadovy Y, Domeier M (2005) Are aggregation-fisheries sustainable? Reef fish fisheries as a case study. Coral Reefs 24:254–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stevens DL, Olsen AR (2004) Spatially balanced sampling of natural resources. J Am Stat Assoc 99:262–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Taylor BM, Choat JH (2014) Comparative demography of commercially important parrotfish species from Micronesia. J Fish Biol 84:383–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Walters C, Martell SJD (2004) Fisheries ecology and management. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  48. Welsh JQ, Bellwood DR (2012) Spatial ecology of the steephead parrotfish (Chlorurus microrhinos): an evaluation using acoustic telemetry. Coral Reefs 31:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Hamilton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Glenn R. Almany
    • 2
    • 3
  • Don Stevens
    • 4
  • Michael Bode
    • 2
    • 5
  • John Pita
    • 6
  • Nate A. Peterson
    • 1
  • J. Howard Choat
    • 7
  1. 1.The Nature Conservancy, Asia Pacific Resource CentreSouth BrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.CRIOBE – USR 3278, CNRS–EPHE–UPVDLaboratoire d’Excellence “CORAIL”Perpignan CedexFrance
  4. 4.Stevens Environmental StatisticsWasillaUSA
  5. 5.ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of BioSciencesUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  6. 6.The Nature Conservancy, Isabel Environmental OfficeBualaSolomon Islands
  7. 7.College of Marine and Environmental StudiesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations