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Coral Reefs

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 113–123 | Cite as

Mesophotic reef fish assemblages of the remote St. Peter and St. Paul’s Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil

  • Marcos Rogerio Rosa
  • Aline Cristina Alves
  • Diego Valverde Medeiros
  • Ericka Oliveira Cavalcanti Coni
  • Camilo Moitinho Ferreira
  • Beatrice Padovani Ferreira
  • Ricardo de Souza Rosa
  • Gilberto Menezes Amado-Filho
  • Guilherme Henrique Pereira-Filho
  • Rodrigo Leão de Moura
  • Fabiano Lopes Thompson
  • Paulo Yukio Gomes Sumida
  • Ronaldo Bastos Francini-Filho
Report

Abstract

Mesophotic reef fish assemblages (30–90 m depth) of the small and remote St. Peter and St. Paul’s Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil, were characterized using remotely operated vehicles. Ordination analyses identified distinct fish assemblages in the upper (30–50 m) and lower (50–90 m) mesophotic zones, the former characterized by high abundances of species that are also abundant at euphotic reefs (Caranx lugubris, Melichthys niger, Stegastes sanctipauli and Chromis multilineata) and the latter dominated by two mesophotic specialists (Prognathodes obliquus and Chromis enchrysura). Planktivores dominated fish assemblages, particularly in the upper mesophotic zone, possibly due to a greater availability of zooplankton coming from the colder Equatorial Undercurrent in mesophotic depths of the SPSPA. Turf algae, fleshy macroalgae and scleractinian corals dominated benthic assemblages between 30 and 40 m depth, while bryozoans, black corals and sponges dominated between 40 and 90 m depth. Canonical correspondence analysis explained 74 % of the relationship between environmental characteristics (depth, benthic cover and complexity) and structure of fish assemblages, with depth as the most important independent variable. Juveniles of Bodianus insularis and adults of P. obliquus and C. enchrysura were clearly associated with branching black corals (Tanacetipathes spp.), suggesting that black corals play key ecological roles in lower mesophotic reefs of the SPSPA. Results from this study add to the global database about mesophotic reef ecosystems (MREs) and provide a baseline for future evaluations of possible anthropogenic and natural disturbances on MREs of the SPSPA.

Keywords

Black corals Bodianus insularis Mesophotic reefs Oceanic islands Prognathodes obliquus Stegastes sanctipauli 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank M. Villela, A.P.B. Moreira, L.S. Rodrigues and D. Sartor for field assistance and data collection; T. J. Mello for helping with data analyses; APA Fernando de Noronha/Rocas/São Pedro e São Paulo/ICMBio for providing research permits; and the crew of Transmar I and Transmar III, as well as Secretaria de Comissão Interministerial para os Recursos do Mar (SECIRM) for logistical support. Financial support was provided by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq (Grant 557185/09-2 to RBFF and 484875/2011-6 to GHPF). BPF, FLT, GMAF, PYGS, RBFF and RSR acknowledge individual grants from CNPq. GMAF, FLT and RLM acknowledge individual grants from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ). MRR acknowledges a doctoral fellowship from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcos Rogerio Rosa
    • 1
  • Aline Cristina Alves
    • 2
  • Diego Valverde Medeiros
    • 3
  • Ericka Oliveira Cavalcanti Coni
    • 4
  • Camilo Moitinho Ferreira
    • 4
  • Beatrice Padovani Ferreira
    • 5
  • Ricardo de Souza Rosa
    • 6
  • Gilberto Menezes Amado-Filho
    • 7
  • Guilherme Henrique Pereira-Filho
    • 8
  • Rodrigo Leão de Moura
    • 9
  • Fabiano Lopes Thompson
    • 9
  • Paulo Yukio Gomes Sumida
    • 10
  • Ronaldo Bastos Francini-Filho
    • 11
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Instituto OceanográficoUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Zoologia)Universidade Federal da ParaíbaJoão PessoaBrazil
  3. 3.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Monitoramento AmbientalUniversidade Federal da ParaíbaRio TintoBrazil
  4. 4.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e ConservaçãoUniversidade Estadual da ParaíbaCampina GrandeBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de Oceanografia, Centro de Tecnologia e GeociênciasUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  6. 6.Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da NaturezaUniversidade Federal da ParaíbaJoão PessoaBrazil
  7. 7.Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  8. 8.Instituto do MarUniversidade Federal de São PauloSantosBrazil
  9. 9.Instituto de Biologia and SAGE/COPPEUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  10. 10.Departamento de Oceanografia Biológica, Instituto OceanográficoUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  11. 11.Departamento de Engenharia e Meio AmbienteUniversidade Federal da ParaíbaRio TintoBrazil

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