Coral Reefs

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 53–62 | Cite as

Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan



Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30–40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral, Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11–12 and 5–6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.


Upper mesophotic coral ecosystem Sexual reproduction Acropora tenella 



We thank Mr. S. Kadena, Mr. M. Jinza, Dr. M. Yorifuji, Dr. M. Morita, Dr. C. Paxton and Mr. K. Hashizume from University of the Ryukyus for field assistance in collecting corals. We are grateful for the technical comments on histology from Dr. N. Yasuda from University of the Ryukyus. We also acknowledge the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on this manuscript. This research was supported by a grant from the Mitsubishi Foundation (24133) and University of the Ryukyus Strategic Research Promotion Grant to SH (PI, Prof. M. Hidaka) and a Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from the Japan Science Society to FS (24-748) and to RP (27-749).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 27 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research CenterUniversity of the RyukyusMotobuJapan
  2. 2.Environmental Impact Assessment Research Group, R&D Center for Submarine ResourcesJapan Agency for Marine Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)YokosukaJapan

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