Coral Reefs

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 65–77 | Cite as

Multi-species spawning synchrony within scleractinian coral assemblages in the Red Sea

  • J. BouwmeesterEmail author
  • A. H. Baird
  • C. J. Chen
  • J. R. Guest
  • K. C. Vicentuan
  • M. L. Berumen


Early work on coral reproduction in the far northern Red Sea suggested that the spawning times of ecologically abundant species did not overlap, unlike on the Great Barrier Reef where many species spawn with high synchrony. In contrast, recent work in the northern and central Red Sea indicates a high degree of synchrony in the reproductive condition of Acropora species: over 90 % of species sampled in April/May contain mature gametes. However, it has yet to be determined when most Acropora release their gametes. In addition, there is a lack of data for other ecologically important scleractinian species such as merulinids and poritids. Here, we document the date and time of spawning for 51 species in the central Red Sea over three consecutive years, and the month of spawning for an additional 17 species inferred from the presence of mature gametes. Spawning occurs on nights around the full moon, the spawning season lasts at least 4 months from April until July, and observations are consistent with the few other records from the Red Sea. The number of Acropora species spawning was highest in April with 13 species spawning two nights before the full moon in 2011, 13 species spawning on the night of the full moon in 2012, and eight species spawning four nights after the full moon in 2013. The total number of species spawning was high in April, May, and June and involved 15–19 species per month in 2012. Only four species spawned in July 2012. Few regions worldwide have been similarly sampled and include the Philippines, Okinawa in Japan, and Palau, where spawning patterns are very similar to those in the central Red Sea and where corals spawn on nights around the full moon over a period of 3–4 months. In particular, in all four locations, Acropora are among the first species to spawn. Our results add to a growing body of evidence indicating that multi-species spawning synchrony is a feature of all speciose coral assemblages.


Coral reefs Larval ecology Reproduction Saudi Arabia Multi-species spawning 



We thank all the volunteers from the KAUST community and Red Sea Research Center who helped to collect data during spawning events. Thanks to F Benzoni and D Huang for identifying some species. This work was funded by baseline research funding from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) to MLB.

Supplementary material

338_2014_1214_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1416 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Bouwmeester
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. H. Baird
    • 2
  • C. J. Chen
    • 1
  • J. R. Guest
    • 3
  • K. C. Vicentuan
    • 4
    • 5
  • M. L. Berumen
    • 1
  1. 1.Red Sea Research CenterKing Abdullah University of Science and TechnologyThuwalKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Advanced Environmental Biotechnology CentreNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.The Marine Science InstituteUniversity of the PhilippinesQuezon CityPhilippines
  5. 5.Tropical Marine Science InstituteNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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