Coral Reefs

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 289–302 | Cite as

Long-lived groupers require structurally stable reefs in the face of repeated climate change disturbances

  • R. Karkarey
  • N. Kelkar
  • A. Savio Lobo
  • T. Alcoverro
  • R. Arthur


Benthic recovery from climate-related disturbances does not always warrant a commensurate functional recovery for reef-associated fish communities. Here, we examine the distribution of benthic groupers (family Serranidae) in coral reef communities from the Lakshadweep archipelago (Arabian Sea) in response to structural complexity and long-term habitat stability. These coral reefs that have been subject to two major El Niño Southern Oscillation-related coral bleaching events in the last decades (1998 and 2010). First, we employ a long-term (12-yr) benthic-monitoring dataset to track habitat structural stability at twelve reef sites in the archipelago. Structural stability of reefs was strongly driven by exposure to monsoon storms and depth, which made deeper and more sheltered reefs on the eastern aspect more stable than the more exposed (western) and shallower reefs. We surveyed groupers (species richness, abundance, biomass) in 60 sites across the entire archipelago, representing both exposures and depths. Sites were selected along a gradient of structural complexity from very low to high. Grouper biomass appeared to vary with habitat stability with significant differences between depth and exposure; sheltered deep reefs had a higher grouper biomass than either sheltered shallow or exposed (deep and shallow) reefs. Species richness and abundance showed similar (though not significant) trends. More interestingly, average grouper biomass increased exponentially with structural complexity, but only at the sheltered deep (high stability) sites, despite the availability of recovered structure at exposed deep and shallow sites (lower-stability sites). This trend was especially pronounced for long-lived groupers (life span >10 yrs). These results suggest that long-lived groupers may prefer temporally stable reefs, independent of the local availability of habitat structure. In reefs subject to repeated disturbances, the presence of structurally stable reefs may be critical as refuges for functionally important, long-lived species like groupers.


Coral reefs Structural change Habitat stability Natural refugia Groupers 

Supplementary material

338_2013_1117_MOESM1_ESM.doc (104 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 104 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Karkarey
    • 1
  • N. Kelkar
    • 1
  • A. Savio Lobo
    • 1
  • T. Alcoverro
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Arthur
    • 1
  1. 1.Nature Conservation FoundationMysoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Marine EcologyCentre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes (CEAB, CSIC)BlanesSpain

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