Coral Reefs

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 631–642 | Cite as

Passive acoustic telemetry reveals highly variable home range and movement patterns among unicornfish within a marine reserve

  • A. Marshell
  • J. S. Mills
  • K. L. Rhodes
  • J. McIlwain
Report

Abstract

Marine reserves are the primary management tool for Guam’s reef fish fishery. While a build-up of fish biomass has occurred inside reserve boundaries, it is unknown whether reserve size matches the scale of movement of target species. Using passive acoustic telemetry, we quantified movement patterns and home range size of two heavily exploited unicornfish Naso unicornis and Naso lituratus. Fifteen fish (N. unicornis: n = 7; N. lituratus: n = 4 male, n = 4 female) were fitted with internal acoustic tags and tracked continuously over four months within a remote acoustic receiver array located in a decade-old marine reserve. This approach provided robust estimates of unicornfish movement patterns and home range size. The mean home range of 3.2 ha for N. unicornis was almost ten times larger than that previously recorded from a three-week tracking study of the species in Hawaii. While N. lituratus were smaller in body size, their mean home range (6.8 ha) was over twice that of N. unicornis. Both species displayed strong site fidelity, particularly during nocturnal and crepuscular periods. Although there was some overlap, individual movement patterns and home range size were highly variable within species and between sexes. N. unicornis home range increased with body size, and only the three largest fish home ranges extended into the deeper outer reef slope beyond the shallow reef flat. Both Naso species favoured habitat dominated by corals. Some individuals made predictable daily crepuscular migrations between different locations or habitat types. There was no evidence of significant spillover from the marine reserve into adjacent fished areas. Strong site fidelity coupled with negligible spillover suggests that small-scale reserves, with natural habitat boundaries to emigration, are effective in protecting localized unicornfish populations.

Keywords

Acoustic telemetry Home range Movement patterns Marine reserves Acanthuridae Guam 

Supplementary material

338_2011_770_MOESM1_ESM.eps (5.4 mb)
Fig. 6 Habitat-related individual home range area estimates of Naso unicornis (ag) and Naso lituratus (females: hk; males: lo). Pink bubble contour = 95% kernel utilization density (KUD); green bubble contour = 50% KUD; blue line = 95% minimum convex polygon (MCP). Colour codes for habitat types are shown in the legend. (EPS 5547 kb)

References

  1. Bartholomew A, Bohnsack JA, Smith SG, Ault JS, Harper DE, McClellan DB (2008) Influence of marine reserve size and boundary length on the initial response of exploited reef fishes in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA. Landsc Ecol 23:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolden SK (2001) Using ultrasonic telemetry to determine home range of a coral reef fish. In: Sibert JR, Nielsen JL (eds) Electronic tagging and tracking in marine fisheries. Kluwer, The Netherlands, pp 167–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Botsford LW, Micheli F, Hastings A (2003) Principles for the design of marine reserves. Ecol Appl 13(Supplement):S25–S31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burdick DR (2006) Guam Coastal Atlas. University of Guam Marine Laboratory, Multimedia Publication No. 4. http://www.guammarinelab.com/coastal.atlas/index.htm
  5. Calenge C (2006) The package “adehabitat” for the R software: a tool for the analysis of space and habitat use by animals. Ecol Model 197:516–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman MR, Kramer DL (2000) Movements of fishes within and among fringing coral reefs in Barbados. Environ Biol Fish 57:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chateau O, Wantiez L (2007) Site fidelity and activity patterns of a humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus (Labridae), as determined by acoustic telemetry. Environ Biol Fish 80:503–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chateau O, Wantiez L (2009) Movement patterns of four coral reef fish species in a fragmented habitat in New Caledonia: implications for the design of marine protected area networks. ICES J Mar Sci 66:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Claisse JT, Clark TB, Schumacher BD, McTee SA, Bushnell ME, Callan CK, Laidley CW, Parrish JD (2011) Conventional tagging and acoustic telemetry of a small surgeonfish, Zebrasoma flavescens, in a structurally complex coral reef environment. Environ Biol Fish. doi: 10.1007/s10641-011-9771-9
  10. Claudet J, Osenberg CW, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Domenici P, García-Charton J, Pérez-Ruzafa A, Badalamenti F, Bayle-Sempere J, Brito A, Bulleri F, Culioli J, Dimech M, Falcón JM, Guala I, Milazzo M, Sánchez-Meca J, Somerfield PJ, Stobart B, Vandeperre F, Valle C, Planes S (2008) Marine reserves: size and age do matter. Ecol Lett 11:481–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dahlgren CP, Eggleston DB (2000) Ecological processes underlying ontogenetic habitat shifts in a coral reef fish. Ecology 81:2227–2240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Danilowicz BS, Sale PF (1999) Relative intensity of predation on the French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum, during diurnal, dusk, and nocturnal periods on a coral reef. Mar Biol 133:337–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eristhee N, Oxenford H (2001) Home range size and use of space by Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (L.) in two marine reserves in the Soufriere Marine Management Area, St Lucia, West Indies. J Fish Biol 59:129–151Google Scholar
  14. Gell FR, Roberts CM (2003) Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends Ecol Evol 18:448–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillett R, Moy W (2006) Spearfishing in the Pacific Islands. Current status and management issues. FAO/FishCode Review. No. 19. FAO, Romes, p72 http://www.fao.org/fishery/publications/2006/en
  16. Halpern BS, Warner RR (2003) Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:1871–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hardman E, Green JM, Desiré S, Perrine S (2010) Movement of sonically tagged bluespine unicornfish, Naso unicornis, in relation to marine reserve boundaries in Rodrigues, western Indian Ocean. Aquat Conserv 20:357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hensley RA, Sherwood TS (1993) An overview of Guam’s inshore fisheries. Mar Fish Rev 55:129–138Google Scholar
  19. Heupel MR, Semmens JM, Hobday AJ (2006) Automated acoustic tracking of aquatic animals: scales, design and deployment of listening station arrays. Mar Freshw Res 57:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hocutt CH, Seibold SE, Jesien RV (1994) Potential use of biotelemetry in tropical continental waters. Rev Hydrobiol Trop 27:77–95Google Scholar
  21. Holland KN, Peterson JD, Lowe CG, Wetherbee BM (1993) Movements, distribution and growth rates of the white goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus in a fisheries conservation zone. Bull Mar Sci 52:982–992Google Scholar
  22. Holland KN, Lowe CG, Wetherbee BM (1996) Movements and dispersal patterns of blue trevally (Caranx melampygus) in a fisheries conservation zone. Fish Res 25:279–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hutchinson N, Rhodes KL (2010) Home range estimates for squaretail coralgrouper, Plectropomus areolatus (Ruppell 1830). Coral Reefs 29:511–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kern JW, McDonald T, Amstrup SC, Durner GM, Erickson WP (2003) Using the bootstrap and fast Fourier transform to estimate confidence intervals of 2D kernel densities. Environ Ecol Stat 10:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kramer DL, Chapman MR (1999) Implications of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function. Environ Biol Fish 55:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Light PR, Jones GP (1997) Habitat preference in newly settled coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus, Serranidae). Coral Reefs 16:117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lowe CG, Topping DT, Cartamil DP, Papastamatiou YP (2003) Movement patterns, home range, and habitat utilization of adult kelp bass Paralabrax clathratus in a temperate no-take marine reserve. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 256:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McFarland WN, Wahl C, Suchaneck T, McLary F (1999) The behaviour of animals around twilight with emphasis on coral reef communities. In: Archer S, Djamgoz MB, Loew E, Partridge JC, Vallerga S (eds) The adaptive mechanisms in the ecology of vision. Kluwer Academic, London, pp 583–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meyer CG, Holland KN (2005) Movement patterns, home range size and habitat utilisation of the bluespine unicornfish, Naso unicornis (Acanthuridae) in a Hawaiian marine reserve. Environ Biol Fish 73:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meyer CG, Honebrink R (2005) Retention of surgically implanted transmitters by bluefin trevally (Caranx melampygus). Implications for long-term movement studies. Trans Am Fish Soc 134:602–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meyer CG, Holland KN, Wetherbee BM, Lowe CG (2000) Movement patterns, habitat utilization, home range size and site fidelity of whitesaddle goatfish, Parupeneus porphyreus, in a marine reserve. Environ Biol Fish 59:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meyer CG, Papastamatiou YP, Holland KN (2007a) Seasonal, diel and tidal movements of green jobfish (Aprion virescens, Lutjanidae) at remote Hawaiian atolls: implications for marine protected area design. Mar Biol 151:2133–2143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meyer CG, Holland KN, Papastamatiou YP (2007b) Seasonal and diel movements of giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis) at remote Hawaiian atolls: implications for the design of Marine Protected Areas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 333:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meyer CG, Papastamatiou YP, Clark TB (2010) Differential movement patterns and site fidelity among trophic groups of reef fishes in a Hawaiian marine protected area. Mar Biol 157:1499–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Munro JL (2000) Outmigration and movement of tagged coral reef fish in a marine fishery reserve in Jamaica. Proc Gulf Caribb Fish Inst 51:557–568Google Scholar
  36. Nakamura Y, Tsuchiya M (2008) Spatial and temporal patterns of seagrass habitat use by fishes at the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 76:345–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nanami A, Yamada H (2008) Size and spatial arrangement of home range of checkered snapper Lutjanus decussatus (Lutjanidae) in an Okinawan coral reef determined using a portable GPS receiver. Mar Biol 153:1103–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nanami A, Yamada H (2009) Site fidelity, size, and spatial arrangement of daytime home range of thumbprint emperor Lethrinus harak (Lethrinidae). Fish Sci 75:1109–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Palumbi SR (2004) Marine reserves and ocean neighbourhoods: the spatial scale of marine populations and their management. Annu Rev Environ Resour 29:31–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parsons DM, Babcock RC, Hankin RKS, Willis TJ, Aitken JP, O’Dor RK, Jackson GD (2003) Snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) home range dynamics: acoustic tagging studies in a marine reserve. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 262:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. R Development Core Team R (2009) A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  42. Randall JE (2001) Surgeonfishes of Hawaii and the world. Mutual Publishing and Bishop Museum Press, Hawaii, p 123Google Scholar
  43. Rhodes KL, Tupper MH (2008) The vulnerability of reproductively active squaretail coralgrouper (Plectropomus areolatus) to fishing. Fish Bull 106:194–203Google Scholar
  44. Rickel S, Genin A (2005) Twilight transitions in coral reef fish: the input of light-induced changes in foraging behaviour. Anim Behav 70:133–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roberts CM, Hawkins JP (1997) How small can a marine reserve be and still be effective? Coral Reefs 16:150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roberts CM, Polunin NVC (1991) Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries? Rev Fish Biol Fish 1:65–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Robertson DR (1983) On the spawning behaviour and spawning cycles of eight surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) from the Indo-Pacific. Environ Biol Fish 9:193–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Robertson DR, Gaines SD (1986) Interference competition structures habitat use in a local assemblage of coral reef surgeonfishes. Ecology 67:1372–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Russ GR (2002) Yet another review of marine reserves as reef fisheries management tools. In: Sale PF (ed) Coral reef fishes: dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 421–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Russ GR, Alcala AC (1996) Do marine reserves export adult fish biomass? Evidence from Apo Island, central Philippines. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 132:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sale PF, Cowen RK, Danilowicz BS, Jones GP, Kritzer JP, Lindeman KC, Planes S, Poulin NVC, Russ GR, Sadovy YJ, Steneck RS (2005) Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. Trends Ecol Evol 20:74–80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Samoilys MA (1997) Movement in a large predatory fish: coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus (Pisces: Serranidae), on the Heron reef, Australia. Coral Reefs 16:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Simpfendorfer CA, Heupel MR, Hueter RE (2002) Estimation of short-term centres of activity from an array of omnidirectional hydrophones and its use in studying animal movements. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tupper M (2007) Spillover of commercially valuable reef fishes from marine protected areas in Guam, Micronesia. Fish Bull 105:527–537Google Scholar
  55. Worton BJ (1987) Kernel methods for estimating the utilization distribution in home-range studies. Ecology 70:164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zeller DC (1997) Home range and activity patterns of the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 154:65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zeller DC (1999) Ultrasonic telemetry: its application to coral reef fisheries research. Fish Bull 97:1058–1065Google Scholar
  58. Zeller DC, Booth S, Davis G, Pauly D (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fishery catches for U.S. flag-associated island areas in the western Pacific: the last 50 years. Fish Bull 105:266–277Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Marshell
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. S. Mills
    • 2
  • K. L. Rhodes
    • 3
  • J. McIlwain
    • 2
  1. 1.Marine Spatial Ecology Lab, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Marine LaboratoryUniversity of GuamMangilaoGuam
  3. 3.College of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource ManagementUniversity of Hawaii at HiloHiloUSA

Personalised recommendations