Coral Reefs

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 501–512 | Cite as

Phylogeography and the conservation of coral reef fishes

  • L. A. Rocha
  • M. T. Craig
  • B. W. Bowen


Here we present a review of how the study of the geographic distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) has helped identify management units, evolutionary significant units, cryptic species, and areas of endemism, and how this information can help efforts to achieve effective conservation of coral reefs. These studies have confirmed the major biogeographic barriers that were originally identified by tropical species distributions. Ancient separations, identified primarily with mtDNA sequence comparisons, became apparent between populations on each side of the barriers. The general lack of correlation between pelagic larval duration and genetic connectivity across barriers indicates that life history and ecology can be as influential as oceanography and geography in shaping evolutionary partitions within ocean basins. Hence, conservation strategies require a recognition of ecological hotspots, those areas where habitat heterogeneity promotes speciation, in addition to more traditional approaches based on biogeography. Finally, the emerging field of genomics will add a new dimension to phylogeography, allowing the study of genes that are pertinent to recent and ongoing differentiation, and ultimately providing higher resolution to detect evolutionary significant units that have diverged in an ecological time scale.


Biogeography Genetics Connectivity Phylogeny Gene flow Marine fish 



Discussions with Mike Hellberg, Haris Lessios, and Ross Robertson greatly improved the manuscript. We also thank Madeleine van Oppen and two anonymous reviewers for constructive reviews. The photographs in Fig. 3e, f were kindly provided by G.R. Allen. Financial support was provided by the National Science Foundation (grant OCE-0453167 to BWB) and the National Geographic Society (grant 7708-04 to LAR) and the HIMB-NWHI Coral Reef Research Partnership (NMSP MOA 2005-008/66882 to BWB).


  1. Avise JC (1992) Molecular population structure and the biogeographic history of a regional fauna: a case history with lessons for conservation biology. Oikos 63:62–76Google Scholar
  2. Avise JC (2000) Phylogeography: the history and formation of species. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Avise JC, Ball RM (1990) Principles of genealogical concordance in species concepts and biological taxonomy. In: Futuyma DJ, Antonovics J (eds) Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 45–67Google Scholar
  4. Avise JC, Wollenberg K (1997) Phylogenetics and the origin of species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:7748–7755Google Scholar
  5. Ballard JWO, Whitlock MC (2004) The incomplete natural history of mitochondria. Mol Ecol 13:729–744Google Scholar
  6. Barber PH, Bellwood DR (2005) Biodiversity hotspots: evolutionary origins of biodiversity in wrasses (Halichoeres: Labridae) in the Indo-Pacific and new world tropics. Mol Phylogenet Evol 35:235–253Google Scholar
  7. Barber PH, Erdmann MV, Palumbi SR (2006) Comparative phylogeography of three codistributed stomatopods: origins and timing of regional lineage diversification in the coral triangle. Evolution 60:1825–1839Google Scholar
  8. Baums IB, Paris CB, Cherubin LM (2006) A bio-oceanographic filter to larval dispersal in a reef-building coral. Limnol Oceanogr 51:1969–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bay LK, Choat JH, van Herwerden L, Robertson DR (2004) High genetic diversities and complex genetic structure in an Indo-Pacific tropical reef fish (Chlorurus sordidus): evidence of an unstable evolutionary past? Mar Biol 144:757–767Google Scholar
  10. Bay LK, Crozier RH, Caley MJ (2006) The relationship between population genetic structure and pelagic larval duration in coral reef fishes on the Great Barrier Reef. Mar Biol 149:1247–1256Google Scholar
  11. Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nyström M (2004) Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429:827–833Google Scholar
  12. Bermingham E, McCafferty SS, Martin AP (1997) Fish biogeography and molecular clocks: perspectives from the Panamanian Isthmus. In: Kocher TD, Stepien CA (eds) Molecular systematics of fishes. Academic, New York, pp 113–128Google Scholar
  13. Bernardi G, Lape J (2005) Tempo and mode of speciation in the Baja California disjunct fish species Anisotremus davidsonii. Mol Ecol 14:4085–4096Google Scholar
  14. Bernardi G, Holbrook SJ, Schmitt RJ, Crane NL, DeMartini E (2002) Species boundaries, populations and colour morphs in the coral reef three-spot damselfish (Dascyllus trimaculatus) species complex. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:599–605Google Scholar
  15. Bernardi G, Findley L, Rocha-Olivares A (2003) Vicariance and dispersal across Baja California in disjunct marine fish populations. Evolution 57:1599–1609Google Scholar
  16. Bowen BW, Roman J (2005) Gaia’s handmaidens: the Orlog model for conservation. Conserv Biol 19:1037–1043Google Scholar
  17. Bowen BW, Bass AL, Soares L, Toonen RJ (2005) Conservation implications of complex population structure: lessons from the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Mol Ecol 14:2389–2402Google Scholar
  18. Bowen BW, Muss A, Rocha LA, Grant WS (2006a) Shallow mtDNA coalescence in Atlantic pygmy angelfishes (Genus Centropyge) indicates a recent invasion from the Indian Ocean. J Hered 97:1–12Google Scholar
  19. Bowen BW, Bass AL, Muss A, Carlin JL, Robertson DR (2006b) Phylogeography of two Atlantic squirrelfishes (Family Holocentridae): exploring links between pelagic larval duration and population connectivity. Mar Biol 149:899–913Google Scholar
  20. Bowen BW, Karl SA, Pfeiler E (2007) Resolving evolutionary lineages and taxonomy of bonefishes (Albula spp.). In: Ault JS (ed) Biology and management of the world tarpon and bonefish fisheries. CRC, Boca Raton, in pressGoogle Scholar
  21. Briggs JC (1974) Marine zoogeography. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown JH, Lomolino MV (1998) Biogeography. Sinauer Associates Inc., SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  23. Burton RS (1998) Intraspecific phylogeography across the point conception biogeographic boundary. Evolution 52:734–745Google Scholar
  24. Carlin JL, Robertson DR, Bowen BW (2003) Ancient divergences and recent connections in two tropical Atlantic reef fishes: Epinephelus adscensionis and Rypticus saponaceous (Percoidei: Serranidae). Mar Biol 143:1057–1069Google Scholar
  25. Carlon DB, Budd AF (2002) Incipient speciation across a depth gradient in a scleractinian coral? Evolution 56:2227–2242Google Scholar
  26. Carlton JT, Geller JB (1993) Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261:78–82Google Scholar
  27. Choat H (2006) Phylogeography and reef fishes: bringing ecology back into the argument. J Biogeogr 33:967–968Google Scholar
  28. Conover DO, Clarke LM, Munch SB, Wagner GN (2006) Spatial and temporal scales of adaptive divergence in marine fishes and the implications for conservation. J Fish Biol 69(Suppl C):21–47Google Scholar
  29. Coyne JA, Orr HA (2004) Speciation. Sinauer Associates Inc., SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  30. Cowen RK (2002) Larval dispersal and retention, and consequences for population connectivity. In: Sale PF (ed) Coral reef fishes. Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic, New York, pp 149–170Google Scholar
  31. Cowen RK, Paris CB, Srinivasan A (2006) Scaling of connectivity in marine populations. Science 311:522–527Google Scholar
  32. Craig MT, Hastings PA, Pondella II DJ, Robertson DR, Casian JAR (2006) Phylogeography of the flag cabrilla (Epinephelus labriformis, Serranidae): implications for the biogeography of the tropical eastern Pacific and the early stages of speciation in a marine shore fish. J Biogeogr 33:969–979Google Scholar
  33. Craig MT, Eble JA, Robertson DR, Bowen BW (2007) High genetic connectivity across the Indian and Pacific Oceans in the reef fish Myripristis berndti (Holocentridae). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 334:245–254Google Scholar
  34. De Queiroz K (1998) The general lineage concept of species, species criteria, and the process of speciation. In: Howard DJ, Berlocher SH (eds) Endless forms: species and speciation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 57–75Google Scholar
  35. Doebeli M, Dieckmann U (2003) Speciation along environmental gradients. Nature 421:259–264Google Scholar
  36. Domeier ML (1994) Speciation in the serranid fish Hypoplectrus. Bull Mar Sci 54:103–141Google Scholar
  37. Duncan KM, Martin AP, Bowen BW, De Couet HG (2006) Global phylogeography of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini). Mol Ecol 15:2239–2251Google Scholar
  38. Duran S, Rützler K (2006) Ecological speciation in a Caribbean marine sponge. Mol Phylogenet Evol 40:292–297Google Scholar
  39. Ekman S (1953) Zoogeography of the sea. Sidgwick and Jackson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Endler JA, Wescotte DA, Madden JR, Robson T (2005) Animal visual systems and the evolution of color patterns: sensory processing illuminates signal evolution. Evolution 59:1795–1818Google Scholar
  41. Faucci A, Toonen RJ, Hadfield MG (2007) Host shift and speciation in a coral-feeding nudibranch. Proc R Soc Lond B 274:111–119Google Scholar
  42. Friedlander A, Caselle JE, Beets J, Lowe C, Bowen BW, Ogawa T, Kelly K, Calitri T, Lange M, Anderson B (2007) Aspects of the biology, ecology, and recreational fishery for bonefish at Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, with comparisons to other Pacific Islands. In: Ault JS (ed) Biology and management of the world tarpon and bonefish fisheries. CRC, Boca Raton, in pressGoogle Scholar
  43. Graves JE, Rosenblatt RH (1980) Genetic relationships of the color morphs of the serranid fish Hypoplectrus unicolor. Evolution 34:240–245Google Scholar
  44. Halpern BS, Regan HM, Possingham HP, McCarthy MA (2006) Accounting for uncertainty in marine reserve design. Ecol Lett 9:2–11Google Scholar
  45. Hastings PA (2000) Biogeography of the tropical eastern Pacific: distribution and phylogeny of chaenopsid fishes. Zool J Linn Soc 128:319–335Google Scholar
  46. Hastings PA, Springer VG (1994) Review of Stathmonotus, with redefinition and phylogenetic analysis of the Chaenopsidae (Teleostei: Blennioidei). Smithson Contrib Zool 558:1–48Google Scholar
  47. Hellberg M (2007) Footprints on water: the genetic wake of dispersal among reefs. Coral Reefs (this issue)Google Scholar
  48. Hey J, Waples RS, Arnold ML, Butlin RK, Harrison RG (2003) Understanding and confronting species uncertainty in biology and conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 18:597–603Google Scholar
  49. Hoffman EA, Kolm N, Berglund A, Arguello JR, Jones AG (2005) Genetic structure in the coral-reef-associated Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni. Mol Ecol 14:1367–1375Google Scholar
  50. Karl SA, Bowen BW (1999) Evolutionary significant units versus geopolitical taxonomy: molecular systematics of an endangered sea turtle (genus Chelonia). Conserv Biol 13:990–999Google Scholar
  51. Klanten SE, Choat H, van Herwerden L (2007) Extreme genetic diversity and temporal rather than spatial partitioning in a widely distributed coral reef. Mar Biol 150:659–670Google Scholar
  52. Knowlton N (1993) Sibling species in the sea. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 24:189–216Google Scholar
  53. Knowlton N (2000) Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea. Hydrobiologia 420:73–90Google Scholar
  54. Knowlton N, Weigt LA (1998) New dates and new rates for divergence across the Isthmus of Panama. Proc R Soc Lond B 265:2257–2263Google Scholar
  55. Kuo CH, Avise JC (2005) Phylogeographic breaks in low-dispersal species: the emergence of concordance across gene trees. Genetica 124:179–186Google Scholar
  56. Lazoski C, Solé-Cava AM, Boury-Esnault N, Klautau M, Russo CAM (2001) Cryptic speciation in a high gene flow scenario in the oviparous marine sponge Chondrosia reniformis. Mar Biol 139:421–429Google Scholar
  57. Leis JM (2002) Pacific coral-reef fishes: the implications of behaviour and ecology of larvae for biodiversity and conservation, and a reassessment of the open population paradigm. Env Biol Fishes 65:199–208Google Scholar
  58. Lessios HA, Robertson DR (2006) Crossing the impassable: genetic connections in 20 reef fishes across the eastern Pacific barrier. Proc R Soc Lond B 273:2201–2208Google Scholar
  59. Lessios HA, Kessing BD, Robertson DR, Paulay G (1999) Phylogeography of the pantropical sea urchin Eucidaris in relation to land barriers and ocean currents. Evolution 53:806–817Google Scholar
  60. Lessios HA, Kessing BD, Pearse JS (2001) Population structure and speciation in tropical seas: global phylogeography of the sea urchin Diadema. Evolution 55:955–975Google Scholar
  61. Lima D, Freitas JEP, Araujo ME, Solé-Cava AM (2005) Genetic detection of cryptic species in the frillfin goby Bathygobius soporator. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 320:211–223Google Scholar
  62. Losos JB, Jackman TR, Larson A, de Queiroz K, Rodriguez-Schettino L (1998) Contingency and determinism in replicated adaptive radiations of Island lizards. Science 279:2115–2118Google Scholar
  63. Lourie SA, Vincent ACJ (2004a) A marine fish follows Wallace’s Line: the phylogeography of the three-spot seahorse (Hippocampus trimaculatus, Syngnathidae, Teleostei) in Southeast Asia. J Biogeogr 31:1975–1985Google Scholar
  64. Lourie SA, Vincent ACJ (2004b) Using biogeography to help set priorities in marine conservation. Conserv Biol 18:1004–1020Google Scholar
  65. Mace GM, Gittleman JL, Purvis A (2003) Preserving the tree of life. Science 300:1707–1709Google Scholar
  66. Mayr E (1963) Animal species and evolution. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  67. McCafferty S, Bermingham E, Quenouille B, Planes S, Hoelzer G, Asoh K (2002) Historical biogeography and molecular systematics of the Indo-Pacific genus Dascyllus (Teleostei : Pomacentridae). Mol Ecol 11:1377–1392Google Scholar
  68. McCartney MA, Acevedo J, Heredia C, Rico C, Quenouille B, Bermingham E, McMillan WO (2003) Genetic mosaic in a marine species flock. Mol Ecol 12:2963–2973Google Scholar
  69. McMillan WO, Weigt LA, Palumbi SR (1999) Color pattern evolution, assortative mating, and genetic differentiation in brightly colored butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae). Evolution 53:247–260Google Scholar
  70. Messmer V, van Herwerden L, Munday PL, Jones GP (2005) Phylogeography of colour polymorphism in the coral reef fish Pseudochromis fuscus, from Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 24:392–402Google Scholar
  71. Meyer CP, Geller JB, Paulay G (2005) Fine scale endemism on coral reefs: archipelagic differentiation in turbinid gastropods. Evolution 59:113–125Google Scholar
  72. Mora C, Sale PF (2002) Are populations of coral reef fish open or closed? Trends Ecol Evol 17:422–428Google Scholar
  73. Mora C, Andréfouët S, Costello MJ, Kranenburg C, Rollo A, Veron JE, Gaston KJ, Myers RA (2006) Coral reefs and the global network of marine protected areas. Science 312:1750–1751Google Scholar
  74. Moritz C (1994) Defining “evolutionary significant units” for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 9:373–375Google Scholar
  75. Moritz C, Faith DP (1998) Comparative phylogeography and the identification of genetically divergent areas for conservation. Mol Ecol 7:419–429Google Scholar
  76. Munday PL, van Herwerden L, Dudgeon CL (2004) Evidence for sympatric speciation by host shift in the sea. Curr Biol 14:1498–1504Google Scholar
  77. Muss A, Robertson DR, Stepien CA, Wirtz P, Bowen BW (2001) Phylogeography of Ophioblennius: the role of ocean currents and geography in reef fish evolution. Evolution 55:561–572Google Scholar
  78. Nelson JS (2006) Fishes of the world. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Palumbi SR (2004) Marine reserves and ocean neighborhoods: the spatial scale of marine populations and their management. Annu Rev Environ Resour 29:31–68Google Scholar
  80. Pandolfi JM, Bradbury RH, Sala E, Hughes TP, Bjorndal KA, Cooke RG, McArdle D, McClenachan L, Newman MJH, Paredes G, Warner RR, Jackson JBC (2003) Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems. Science 301:955–958Google Scholar
  81. Paulay G, Meyer A (2006) Dispersal and divergence across the greatest ocean region: do larvae matter? Integr Comp Biol 46:269–281Google Scholar
  82. Pfeiler E, Colborn J, Douglas MR, Douglas ME (2002) Systematic status of the bonefishes (Albula spp.) from the eastern Pacific Ocean inferred from analyses of allozymes and mitochondrial DNA. Environ Biol Fish 63:151–159Google Scholar
  83. Pfeiler E, Bitler BG, Ulloa R (2006) Phylogenetic relationships of the shafted bonefish Albula nemoptera (Albuliformes: Albulidae) from the eastern Pacific based on cytochrome b sequence analysis. Copeia 2006:778–784Google Scholar
  84. Planes S, Fauvelot C (2002) Isolation by distance and vicariance drive genetic structure of a coral reef fish in the Pacific Ocean. Evolution 56:378–399Google Scholar
  85. Planes S, Doherty PJ, Bernardi G (2001) Strong genetic divergence among populations of a marine fish with limited dispersal, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, within the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea. Evolution 55:2263–2273Google Scholar
  86. Puebla O, Bermingham E, Guichard F, Whiteman E (2007) Colour pattern as a single trait driving speciation in Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes? Proc R Soc Lond B 274:1265–1271Google Scholar
  87. Purcell JFH, Cowen RK, Hughes CR, Williams DA (2006) Weak genetic structure indicates strong dispersal limits: a tale of two coral reef fish. Proc R Soc Lond B 273:1483–1490Google Scholar
  88. Quattro JM, Stoner DS, Driggers WB, Anderson CA, Priede KA, Hoppmann EC, Campbell NH, Duncan KM, Grady JM (2006) Genetic evidence for cryptic speciation within hammerhead sharks (Genus Sphyrna). Mar Biol 148:1143–1155Google Scholar
  89. Ramon ML, Lobel PS, Sorenson MD (2003) Lack of mitochondrial genetic structure in hamlets (Hypoplectrus spp.): recent speciation or ongoing hybridization? Mol Ecol 12:2975–2980Google Scholar
  90. Randall JE (1998) Zoogeography of shore fishes of the Indo-Pacific region. Zool Stud 37:227–268Google Scholar
  91. Reid DG, Lal K, Mackenzie-Dodds J, Kaligis F, Littlewood DTJ, Williams ST (2006) Comparative phylogeography and species boundaries in Echinolittorina snails in the central Indo-West Pacific. J Biogeogr 33:990–1006Google Scholar
  92. Riginos C (2005) Cryptic vicariance in Gulf of California fishes parallels vicariant patterns found in Baja California mammals and reptiles. Evolution 59:2678–2690Google Scholar
  93. Riginos C, Nachman MW (2001) Population subdivision in marine environments: the contributions of biogeography, geographical distance and discontinuous habitat to genetic differentiation in a blennioid fish, Axoclinus nigricaudus. Mol Ecol 10:1439–1453Google Scholar
  94. Riginos C, Victor B (2001) Larval spatial distributions and other early life-history characteristics predict genetic differentiation in eastern Pacific blennioid fishes. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:1931–1936Google Scholar
  95. Roberts CM, McClean CJ, Veron JE, Hawkins JP, Allen GR, McAllister DE, Mittermeier CG, Schueler FW, Spalding M, Wells F, Vynne C, Werner TB (2002) Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science 295:1280–1284Google Scholar
  96. Robertson DR, Karg F, de Moura RL, Victor B, Bernardi G (2006) Mechanisms of speciation and faunal enrichment in Atlantic parrotfishes. Mol Phylogenet Evol 40:795–807Google Scholar
  97. Rocha LA (2003) Patterns of distribution and processes of speciation in Brazilian reef fishes. J Biogeogr 30:1161–1171Google Scholar
  98. Rocha LA (2004) Mitochondrial DNA and color pattern variation in three western Atlantic Halichoeres (Labridae), with the revalidation of two species. Copeia 2004:770–782Google Scholar
  99. Rocha LA, Bass AL, Robertson DR, Bowen BW (2002) Adult habitat preferences, larval dispersal, and the comparative phylogeography of three Atlantic surgeonfishes (Teleostei: Acanthuridae). Mol Ecol 11:243–252Google Scholar
  100. Rocha LA, Robertson DR, Roman J, Bowen BW (2005a) Ecological speciation in tropical reef fishes. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:573–579Google Scholar
  101. Rocha LA, Robertson DR, Rocha CR, Van Tassell JL, Craig MT, Bowen BW (2005b) Recent invasion of the tropical Atlantic by an Indo-Pacific coral reef fish. Mol Ecol 14:3921–3928Google Scholar
  102. Santos S, Hrbek T, Farias IP, Schneider H, Sampaio I (2006) Population genetic structuring of the king weakfish, Macrodon ancylodon (Sciaenidae), in Atlantic coastal waters of South America: deep genetic divergence without morphological change. Mol Ecol 15:4361–4373Google Scholar
  103. Sarver SK, Silberman JD, Walsh PJ (1998) Mitochondrial DNA sequence evidence supporting the recognition of two subspecies of the Florida spiny lobster Panulirus argus. J Crustacean Biol 18:177–186Google Scholar
  104. Schama R, Solé-Cava AM, Thorpe JP (2004) Genetic divergence between east and west Atlantic populations of Actinia spp. sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniidae). Mar Biol 146:435–443Google Scholar
  105. Schluter D (2001) Ecology and the origin of species. Trends Ecol Evol 16:372–380Google Scholar
  106. Schultz JK, Pyle RL, DeMartini E, Bowen BW (2007) Genetic connectivity among color morphs and Pacific archipelagos for the flame angelfish, Centropyge loriculus. Mar Biol 151:167–175Google Scholar
  107. Shulman MJ, Bermingham E (1995) Early life histories, ocean currents and the population genetics of Caribbean reef fishes. Evolution 49:1041–1061Google Scholar
  108. Smith-Keune C, van Oppen MJH (2006) Genetic structure of a reef-building coral from thermally distinct environments on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 25:493–502Google Scholar
  109. Streelman JT, Alfaro M, Westneat MW, Bellwood DR, Karl SA (2002) Evolutionary history of the parrotfishes: biogeography, ecomorphology, and comparative diversity. Evolution 56:961–971Google Scholar
  110. Swearer SE, Shima JS, Hellberg ME, Thorrold SR, Jones GP, Robertson DR, Morgan SG, Selkoe KA, Ruiz GM, Warner RR (2002) Evidence of self-recruitment in demersal marine populations. Bull Mar Sci 70:251–271Google Scholar
  111. Taylor MS, Hellberg ME (2006) Comparative phylogeography in a genus of coral reef fishes: biogeographic and genetic concordance in the Caribbean. Mol Ecol 15:695–707Google Scholar
  112. Thacker CE (2004) Population structure in two species of the reef goby Gnatholepis (Teleostei: Perciformes) among four South Pacific Island groups. Coral Reefs 23:357–366Google Scholar
  113. Teske PR, McQuaid CD, Froneman PW, Barker NP (2006) Impacts of marine biogeographic boundaries on phylogeographic patterns of three South African estuarine crustaceans. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 314:283–293Google Scholar
  114. US Fish, Wildlife Service (1983) Endangered and threatened species listing and recovery priority guidelines. Federal Register 48:43098–43105Google Scholar
  115. van Herwerden L, Doherty PJ (2006) Contrasting genetic structures across two hybrid zones of a tropical reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Bleeker 1855). J Evol Biol 19:239–252Google Scholar
  116. van Herwerden L, Choat H, Dudgeon CL, Carlos GC, Newman SJ, Frisch A, van Oppen MJH (2006) Contrasting patterns of genetic structure in two species of the coral trout Plectropomus (Serranidae) from east and west Australia: introgressive hybridisation or ancestral polymorphisms. Mol Phylogenet Evol 41:420–435Google Scholar
  117. van Oppen MJH, Gates RD (2006) Conservation genetics and the resilience of reef-building corals. Mol Ecol 15:3863–3883Google Scholar
  118. Victor BC, Wellington GM (2000) Endemism and the pelagic larval duration of reef fishes in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 205:241–248Google Scholar
  119. Whitehead A, Crawford DL (2006) Neutral and adaptive variation in gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:5425–5430Google Scholar
  120. Wörheide G, Solé-Cava AM, Hooper JNA (2005) Biodiversity, molecular ecology and phylogeography of marine sponges: patterns, implications and outlooks. Integr Comp Biol 45:377–385Google Scholar
  121. Yaakub SM, Bellwood DR, van Herwerden L, Walsh FM (2006) Hybridization in coral reef fishes: introgression and bi-directional gene exchange in Thalassoma (family Labridae). Mol Phylogenet Evol 40:84–100Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hawaii Institute of Marine BiologyUniversity of HawaiiKaneoheUSA

Personalised recommendations