Coral Reefs

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 87–94 | Cite as

Near-bottom depletion of zooplankton over a coral reef II: relationships with zooplankton swimming ability

  • Roi Holzman
  • Matthew A. Reidenbach
  • Stephen G. Monismith
  • Jeffrey R. Koseff
  • Amatzia Genin
Report

Abstract

Intense predation by corals and associated fauna can generate vertical gradients of their zooplankton prey. The goal of this study was to characterize the small-scale distribution of zooplankton above the coral reef of Eilat, Israel. Four vertical arrays, each consisting five underwater pumps attached 0.5–3 m apart on a taut mooring, were deployed for 10 days at two sites over the reef slope. A distinct layer of depleted zooplankton was repeatedly found in the 1.5 m high benthic boundary layer. The gradient was sharpest for strong swimmers (copepods and polychaeta), intermediate for weak swimmers (nauplii, mollusks and appendicularia), and lacking for passive taxa (eggs and foraminifera). Spatio-temporal changes in the abundance of copepods and polychaetes were highly correlated, more so in the water aloft (Pearson r>0.9) than near the bottom (r>0.8). The spatio-temporal correlations between weak swimmers and between passive taxa were much weaker (r<0.8 and r<0.4, respectively). Flow and shear stress did not affect the distribution patterns. The correspondence between the zooplankton distribution and their swimming ability indicates that bottom avoidance contribute to the formation of depleted layer over the reef.

Keywords

Behavior Small-scale distribution Predation Boundary layer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank M. Ohevia for designing and building the pump arrays and underwater rigs and for extensive technical help throughout the study, I. Ayalon and B. Farstey for helping with the zooplankton counts, R Goldshmid, S Rickel, G Yahel and R Yahel for constructive discussions and reviews, E. Dunkelberger, S. Nielsen, R. Motro, Y. Shif, S. Rickel, T. Holzman for invaluable help with the underwater work, D. Fong for assistance with the bathymetric chart. We are grateful to P.F. Sale and an anonymous reviewer for a critical review and many helpful comments. The Interuniversity Institute of Eilat provided invaluable logistic support. This study was supported by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation and the Stanford University Bio-X Interdisciplinary Research Initiative. R. Holzman wishes to thank the Rieger Foundation for their support.

References

  1. Ådlandsivik B, Coombs S, Sundby S. Temple G (2001) Buoyancy and vertical distribution of eggs and larvae of blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou): observations and modeling. Fish Res 50:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alldredge AL, King JM (1977) Distribution, abundance, and substrate preferences of demersal reef zooplankton at Lizard Island Lagoon, Great Barrier Reef. Mar Biol 41:317–333Google Scholar
  3. Alldredge AL, King JM (1985) The distance demersal zooplankton migrate above the benthos: Implications for predation. Mar Biol 84:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barans CA, Stender BW, Holliday DV, Greenlaw CF (1997) Variation in the vertical distribution of zooplankton and fine particles in an estuarine inlet of South Carolina. Estuaries 20:467–482Google Scholar
  5. Bollens SM, Frost BW, Cordell JR (1994) Chemical, mechanical and visual cues in the vertical migration behavior of the marine planktonic copepod Acartia hudsonica. J Plankton Res 16:555–564Google Scholar
  6. Clarke RD (1992) Effects of microhabitat and metabolic rate on food intake, growth and fecundity of two competing coral reef fishes. Coral Reefs 11:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DeMott WR, Watson MD (1991) Remote detection of algae by copepods: responses to algal size, odors and motility. J Plankton Res 13:1203–1222Google Scholar
  8. Farstey B, Lazar B, Genin A (2002) Expansion and homogeneity of the vertical distribution of zooplankton in a very deep mixed layer. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 238:91–100Google Scholar
  9. Fishelson L (1971) Ecology and distribution of the benthic fauna in the shallow waters of the Red Sea. Mar Biol 10:113–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gallager SM, Davis CS, Epstein AW, Solow A, Beardsley RC (1996) High-resolution observations of plankton spatial distributions correlated with hydrography in the Great South Channel, Georges Bank. Deep Sea Res II 43:1627–1663Google Scholar
  11. Genin A, Yahel G, Reidenbach MA, Monismith SG, Kosef JR (2002) Intense benthic grazing on phytoplankton in coral reef revealed using the control volume approach. Oceanography 15:90–96Google Scholar
  12. Greenblatt PR (1982) Small-scale horizontal distribution of zooplankton taxa. Mar Biol 67:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hamner WM, Jones MS, Carleton JH, Hauri IR, Williams DM (1988) Zooplankton, planktivorous fish, and water currents on a windward reef face: Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Bull Mar Sci 42:459–479Google Scholar
  14. Hardy A (1956) The open sea: its natural history. Part one: the world of plankton. The Fontana new naturalist, SuffolkGoogle Scholar
  15. Hobson ES, Chess JR (1978) Trophic relationships among fishes and plankton in the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Fish Bull 1:133–153Google Scholar
  16. Holzman R, Genin A (2003) Zooplanktivory by a nocturnal coral-reef fish: effects of light, flow, and prey density. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1367–1375Google Scholar
  17. Kaartvedt S (1993) Drifting and resident plankton. Bull Mar Sci 53:154–159Google Scholar
  18. Khalaf MA, Kochzius M (2002) Community structure and biogeography of shore fishes in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Helgol Mar Res 55:252–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kiflawi M, Genin A (1997) Prey flux manipulation and the feeding rates on reef-dwelling planktivorous fish. Ecology. 78:1062–1077Google Scholar
  20. Kim SC, Friedrichs CT, Maa JPY, Wright LD (2000) Estimating bottom stress in tidal boundary layer from acoustic Doppler velocimeter data. J Hydr Eng 126:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kiorboe T, Saiz E (1995) Planktivorous feeding in calm and turbulent environments, with emphasis on copepods. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 122:135–145Google Scholar
  22. Kringel K, Jumars PA, Holliday DV (2003) A shallow scattering layer: High-resolution acoustic analysis of nocturnal vertical migration from the seabed. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1223–1234Google Scholar
  23. Maar M, Nielsen TG, Strips A, Visser AW (2003) Microscale distribution of zooplankton in relation to turbulent diffusion. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1312–1325Google Scholar
  24. Metaxas A (2001) Behaviour in flow: perspectives on the distribution and dispersion of meroplanktonic larvae in the water column. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:86–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mileikovsky SA (1973) Speed of active movement of pelagic larvae of marine bottom invertebrates and their ability to regulate their vertical position. Mar Biol 23:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Motro R, Ayalon I, Genin A (200X) Near-bottom depletion of zooplankton over coral reefs: III. Vertical gradients of predation pressure. Coral Reefs XX:PPP–PPPGoogle Scholar
  27. O’Brien WJ (1987) Planktivory by freshwater fish: thrust and parry in the pelagia. In: Kerfoot WC, Sih A (eds) Predation. Direct and indirect impacts on aquatic communities. University press of New England, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  28. Ohman MD (1988) Behavioral responses of zooplankton to predation. Bull Mar Sci 43:530–550Google Scholar
  29. Omori M, Ikeda T (1984) Methods in marine zooplankton ecology. Wiley-InterscienceGoogle Scholar
  30. Porter JW, Porter KG, Batac-Catalan J (1977). Quantitative sample of Indo-Pacific demersal reef plankton. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium of coral reefs, vol. 1, pp 105–112Google Scholar
  31. Reiss Z, Hottinger L (1984) The Gulf of Aqaba: Ecological micropaleontology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  32. Rilov G, Benayahu Y (2000) Fish assemblage on natural versus vertical artificial reefs: the rehabilitation perspective. Mar Biol 136:931–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rothschild BJ, Osborn TR (1988) Small-scale turbulence and plankton contact rates. J Plankton Res 10:465–474Google Scholar
  34. Sale PF, McWilliam PS, Anderson DT (1976) Comparison of the near-reef zooplankton at Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Mar Biol 34:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sebens KP, Grace SP, Helmuth B, Maney EJ, Miles JS Jr (1998) Water flow and prey capture by three scleractinian corals, Madracis mirabilis, Montastrea cavernosa and Porites porites, in a field enclosure. Mar Biol 131:347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Siegel S, Castellan NJ (1988) Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Sommer U, Berninger UG, Bottger-Schnack R, Cornils A, Hagen W, Hansen T, Al-Najjar T, Post AF, Schnack-Schiel SB, Stibor H, Stubing D,Wickham S (2002) Grazing during early spring in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Northern Red Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 239:251–261Google Scholar
  38. Star JL, Mullin MM (1981) Zooplankton assemblages in three areas of the North Pacific revealed by continuous horizontal transects. Deep Sea Res I 28:1303–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thomas FI, Atkinson MJ (1997) Ammonium uptake by coral reefs: Effects of water velocity and surface roughness on mass transfer. Limnol Oceanogr 42:81–88Google Scholar
  40. Tranter DJ, George J (1969) Zooplankton abundance at Kavaratti and Kalpeni atolls in the Laccadives. Mar Biol Assn India 1969:239–256Google Scholar
  41. Van Duren LA, Videler JJ (1995) Swimming behavior of developmental stages of the Calanoid copepod Temora longicornis at different food concentrations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 126:153–161Google Scholar
  42. VanGool E, Ringelberg J (1996) Daphnids respond to algae-associated odors. J Plankton Res 18:197–202Google Scholar
  43. Wicklum D (1999) Variation in horizontal zooplankton abundance in mountain lakes: shore avoidance or fish predation? J. Plankton Res 21:1957–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wiebe PH, Copley NJ, Boyd SH (1992) Coarse-scale horizontal patchiness and vertical migration of zooplankton in Gulf Stream warm-core ring 82-H. Deep Sea Res 39(Supp 1):S247–S278Google Scholar
  45. Yahel G, Post AF, Fabricius K, Marie D, Vaulot D, Genin A (1998) Phytoplankton distribution and grazing near coral reefs. Limnol Oceanogr 43:551–563Google Scholar
  46. Yahel R, Yahel G, Genin A (2002) Daily cycles of suspended sand at coral reefs: a biological control. Limnol Oceanogr 47:1071–1083Google Scholar
  47. Yahel R, Yahel G, Genin A (200X) Near-bottom depletion of zooplankton over coral reefs: I. Diurnal dynamics and size distribution. Coral Reefs XX: PPP–PPPGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roi Holzman
    • 1
  • Matthew A. Reidenbach
    • 2
    • 3
  • Stephen G. Monismith
    • 2
  • Jeffrey R. Koseff
    • 2
  • Amatzia Genin
    • 1
  1. 1.The Inter-university Institute for Marine Sciences of Eilat and Department of Evolution, Systematics and EcologyThe Hebrew University of JerusalemEilatIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringStanford UniversityStanford, CaliforniaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations