Two SINE families associated with equine microsatellite loci
BLAST searches of 61 equine microsatellite sequences revealed two related families of retroposons. The first family included seven markers, all of which showed significant homology to the Equine Repetitive Element-1 (ERE-1) Short Interspersed Nucleotide Element (SINE) sequence. Length of homology ranged from 76 to 171 bases with identities to the ERE-1 consensus sequence ranging from 71% to 83%. The second family referred to as Equine Repetitive Element-2 (ERE-2) has a consensus sequence that showed homology to ERE-1 over approximately 60 bases. These 60 bases comprised subunit I. Sequence comparisons for the two retroposons led to the identification of a subunit II, subunit III, as well as the tRNAser subunit. The subunit structure of ERE-1 was tRNAser-I-II. By contrast, the subunit structure of ERE-2 was I-III-III. The nine markers related to ERE-2 showed homology lengths ranging from 84 to 163 bases with identities ranging from 75% to 99%.
In addition to being present in microsatellites, ERE-2 appeared in three separate equine genes. It occurred in an intron of DNA-PK, in an untranslated region as well as in the promoter of PGHS, and in the coding region of PAM. The amino acids corresponding to the ERE-2 sequence in PAM were not present in the human or mouse PAM homologs. These amino acids associated with the ERE-2 sequence were present on the cytosolic side of the transmembrane domain of the PAM enzyme.
Microsatellite markers in the ERE-1 and ERE-2 families were found throughout the genus equus and also for rhinoceros, indicating that the appearance of both retroposons predates the divergence of equids from the other perissodactyls. The markers did not amplify in human or bovine DNA. This indicated that ERE-1 and ERE-2 are, at least, perissodactyl specific.
KeywordsNucleotide Microsatellite Marker Consensus Sequence Microsatellite Locus Untranslated Region
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