The human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1): an evolutionary story in primates
The tumor suppressor gene RB1 (Human Retinoblastoma Susceptibility Gene) plays a prominent role in normal development, gene transcription, DNA replication, repair, and mitosis. Its complete biallelic dysfunction in retinoblasts is the main cause of retinoblastoma in the human. Although this gene has been evolutionary conserved, comparisons between the reference and human RB1 coding region with its counterparts in 19 non-human primates showed 359 sites where nucleotide replacements took place during the radiation of these species. These resulted in missense substitutions in 97 codons, 91 of which by amino acids with radically different physicochemical properties. Several in frame deletions and two insertions were also observed in the N-terminal region of the pRB protein where the highest number of amino acid substitutions and radical amino changes were found. Fifty-six codons were inferred to be under negative selection and five under positive selection. Differences in codon usage showed evident phylogenetic signals, with hominids generally presenting higher indices of codon bias than other catarrhines. The lineage leading to platyrrhines and, within platyrrhines, the lineage leading to Saimiri boliviensis showed a high rate of nucleotide substitutions and amino acids. Finally, several RB1 alterations associated to retinoblastoma in the human were present in several non-human primates without an apparent pathological effect.
KeywordsCodon Usage Retinoblastoma Online Appendix Silent Mutation Amino Acid Property
Work supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento (Brazil), grant 303306/2010-6 and Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (BR) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Award Number: 209101/E-44/2014).