Mammalian Genome

, Volume 16, Issue 7, pp 524–531 | Cite as

Mutation identification in a canine model of X-linked ectodermal dysplasia

  • Margret L. CasalEmail author
  • Jennifer L. Scheidt
  • James L. Rhodes
  • Paula S. Henthorn
  • Petra Werner


X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED), an inherited disease recognized in humans, mice, and cattle, is characterized by hypotrichosis, a reduced number or absence of sweat glands, and missing or malformed teeth. In a subset of affected individuals and animals, mutations in the EDA gene (formerly EDI), coding for ectodysplasin, have been found to cause this phenotype. Ectodysplasin is a homotrimeric transmembrane protein with an extracellular TNF-like domain, which has been shown to be involved in the morphogenesis of hair follicles and tooth buds during fetal development. Some human XHED patients also have concurrent immunodeficiency, due to mutations in the NF-κB essential modulator protein (IKBKG; formerly NEMO), which is also encoded on the X chromosome. In a breeding colony of dogs with XHED, immune system defects had been suspected because of frequent pulmonary infections and unexpected deaths resulting from pneumonia. To determine if defects in EDA or IKBKG cause XHED in the dogs, linkage analysis and sequencing experiments were performed. A polymorphic marker near the canine EDA gene showed significant linkage to XHED. The canine EDA gene was sequenced and a nucleotide substitution (G to A) in the splice acceptor site of intron 8 was detected in affected dogs. In the presence of the A residue, a cryptic acceptor site within exon 9 is used, leading to a frame shift and use of a premature stop codon that truncates the translation of both isoforms, EDA-A1 and EDA-A2, resulting in the absence of the TNF-like homology domain, the receptor-binding site of ectodysplasin.


Premature Stop Codon Splice Donor Site Ectodermal Dysplasia Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia Hypotrichosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported with funds from the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasias and the National Institutes of Health (KO1-AR049817 and P40-RRO2512). The authors thank Dr. Ewan Kirkness and Dr. Claire Fraser for sharing canine genome sequences prior to publication and Dr. Mark Haskins for critical advice.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margret L. Casal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jennifer L. Scheidt
    • 2
  • James L. Rhodes
    • 2
  • Paula S. Henthorn
    • 1
  • Petra Werner
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Medical Genetics, Veterinary HospitalUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.School of Veterinary Medicineuniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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