Mammalian Genome

, Volume 15, Issue 12, pp 966–974 | Cite as

Conservation of genomic imprinting at the XIST, IGF2, and GTL2 loci in the bovine

  • Scott V. Dindot
  • Kathleen C. Kent
  • Bret Evers
  • Naida Loskutoff
  • James Womack
  • Jorge A. PiedrahitaEmail author


Genomic imprinting is theorized to exist in all placental mammals and some marsupials; however, extensive comparative analysis of animals aside from humans and mice remains incomplete. Here we report conservation of genomic imprinting in the bovine at the X chromosome inactivation–specific transcript (XIST), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), and gene trap locus 2 (GTL2) loci. Coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between Bos gaurus and Bos taurus were detected at the XIST, IGF2, and GTL2 loci, which have previously been identified as imprinted in either humans, mice, or sheep. Expression patterns of parental alleles in F1 hybrids indicated preferential paternal expression at the XIST locus solely in the chorion of females, whereas analysis of the IGF2 and GTL2 loci indicated preferential paternal and maternal expression of alleles, respectively, in both fetal and placental tissues. Comparative sequence analysis of the XIST locus and adjacent regions suggests that repression of the maternal allele in the bovine is controlled by a different mechanism than in mice, further reinforcing the importance of comparative analysis of imprinting.


Imprint Gene Comparative Sequence Analysis Allelic Expression Xist Gene Xist Locus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Gary Hansen and members of Dr. Piedrahita’s laboratory for assistance with generating and maintenance of the experimental cattle. This research was supported by NIH grant HL51587 and a Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine Signature grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott V. Dindot
    • 1
  • Kathleen C. Kent
    • 1
  • Bret Evers
    • 1
  • Naida Loskutoff
    • 2
  • James Womack
    • 3
  • Jorge A. Piedrahita
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, College of Veterinary MedicineTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Center for Conservation and ResearchHenry Doorly ZooOmahaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary MedicineTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  4. 4.Molecular Biomedical Science, College of Veterinary MedicineNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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