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Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 571–586 | Cite as

Vegetational and agricultural dynamics at Burgäschisee (Swiss Plateau) recorded for 18,700 years by multi-proxy evidence from partly varved sediments

  • Fabian ReyEmail author
  • Erika Gobet
  • Jacqueline F. N. van Leeuwen
  • Adrian Gilli
  • Ulrike J. van Raden
  • Albert Hafner
  • Othmar Wey
  • Julia Rhiner
  • Daniela Schmocker
  • Jan Zünd
  • Willy Tinner
Original Article

Abstract

Little is known about the timing and the vegetation dynamics shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) on the Swiss Plateau 19,000–15,000 cal bp. Subsequent Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation changes are better known; however, it is unclear if the few available palynological and macrofossil records are able to capture the entire vegetation variability of the region. A new palaeoecological multi-proxy study using pollen, spores, charcoal and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from Burgäschisee (Swiss Plateau, 465 m a.s.l.) is applied to reconstruct vegetation, fire and land use for the past 19,000 cal years. Steppe tundra vegetation established at c. 18,700 cal bp only c. 300 years after the end of the LGM and deglaciation. A shift from steppe tundra (Artemisia, Helianthemum) to shrub tundra (Betula nana, Salix, Juniperus) with sporadic tree Betula stands occurred around 16,000 cal bp, most likely in response to climate warming after the end of Heinrich event 1. Abundant spores of coprophilous fungi (Sporormiella, Cercophora) may reflect the presence of Pleistocene large herbivores (e.g. Mammuthus primigenius, Bison bonasus, Rangifer tarandus). Afforestation started more than 2,000 years later with Juniperus and tree Betula around 14,500 cal bp. Mixed Betula and Pinus sylvestris forests persisted until 10,800 cal bp, when mixed elm forests expanded into the region in response to climate warming. Around 8,200 cal bp, mesophilous Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba partly replaced more heliophilous species in the forests, when climate became less continental and more moist. Pollen of Cerealia, Plantago lanceolata and other crops and weeds suggest that agricultural activities became significant during the Neolithic around 6,500 cal bp (4550 cal bc). Archaeological findings from Neolithic pile dwellings around 5,950 cal bp (4000 cal bc) indicate local settlements around the lake. The lake sediments are laminated for most of the last c. 6,800 years. With two independent proxies (XRF and pollen), we can demonstrate that these laminations are annual, suggesting short-term mixing of the lake water due to a more open landscape in response to land use. Our study shows that the annually laminated (varved) sediments from Burgäschisee have a great potential for high-resolution multi-proxy analyses covering the past c. 6,800 years. They can provide accurate ages of cultural phases that might be compared with dendrochronologically dated evidence from lake dwellings.

Keywords

Fire history Heinrich event 1 Human impact LGM Varves Vegetation history 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Willi Tanner, Richard Niederreiter, André F. Lotter, Claire Rambeau, Marianne Steffen, Camilla Calò, Stéphanie Samartin, Elisa Vescovi, Stefanie Wirth, Stewart Bishop and Martin Tschanz for their help during the fieldwork, Florencia Oberli for her help in the laboratory and during the coring, Flavio S. Anselmetti for his support, Werner E. Stöckli for insisting on new basal ages to date deglaciation as well as the two reviewers for their valuable suggestions on the manuscript. This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF 200021_149203/1 and PMPDP2-122945).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabian Rey
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Erika Gobet
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jacqueline F. N. van Leeuwen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adrian Gilli
    • 3
  • Ulrike J. van Raden
    • 3
  • Albert Hafner
    • 2
    • 4
  • Othmar Wey
    • 2
    • 4
  • Julia Rhiner
    • 1
  • Daniela Schmocker
    • 1
  • Jan Zünd
    • 1
  • Willy Tinner
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Plant SciencesUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Oeschger Centre for Climate Change ResearchUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Geological InstituteETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Institute of Archaeological SciencesUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland

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