Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 271–309 | Cite as

One hundred years of Quaternary pollen analysis 1916–2016

  • H. John B. BirksEmail author
  • Björn E. Berglund
Original Article


We review the history of Quaternary pollen analysis from 1916 to the present-day, with particular emphasis on methodological and conceptual developments and on the early pioneers of the subject. The history is divided into three phases—the pioneer phase 1916–1950, the building phase 1951–1973, and the mature phase 1974–present-day. We also explore relevant studies prior to Lennart von Post’s seminal lecture in 1916 in Kristiania (Oslo) in an attempt to trace how the idea of Quaternary pollen analysis with quantitative pollen counting and stratigraphical pollen diagrams developed.


Concepts History Methods Palaeoclimatology Pioneers Pollen-representation studies Quaternary geology Taphonomy 



This paper is based in part on the lectures we gave at the Centenary (1916–2016) of Pollen Analysis and the Legacy of Lennart von Post held at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm on 24–25 November 2016. This meeting was generously supported by the Linnaeus University, the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, the Wenner-Gren Foundation, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. We are very grateful to Marie-José Gaillard and Kevin J Edwards for the invitation to present our lectures; to Hilary Birks for many helpful discussions and invaluable practical assistance; to the late Svend Th. Andersen, Lucie Čermákova, Kevin Edwards, the late Knut Fægri, Thomas Giesecke, the late Harry Godwin, the late Johs Iversen, Steve Jackson, Per Magnus Jørgensen, Pim de Klerk, the late Tage Nilsson, Anneli Poska, the late Bill Watts, and the late Herb Wright for valuable information about the early history of pollen analysis; to Kevin Edwards, an anonymous reviewer, and Felix Bittmann for comments and suggestions; and to Cathy Jenks for her hard work and meticulous help in preparing the manuscript. We appreciate access to archival material held at the Swedish Geological Survey, Uppsala; the Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University; Lund University; and the University of Bergen.

Supplementary material

334_2017_630_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (675 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 674 KB)


  1. Aaby B (1983) Forest development, soil genesis and human activity illustrated by pollen and hypha analysis of two neighbouring podzols in Draved Forest, Denmark. Danm Geol Unders II 114:1–114Google Scholar
  2. Aario L (1940) Waldgrenzen und subrezenten Pollen-spektren in Petsamo, Lapland. Ann Acad Sci Fennicæ A 54:1–120Google Scholar
  3. Aario L (1944) Über die pollenanalytischen Methoden zur Untersuchung von Waldgrenzen. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 66:337–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Åkesson C, Nielsen AB, Broström A, Persson T, Gaillard M-J, Berglund BE (2015) From landscape description to quantification: a new generation of reconstructions provides new perspectives on Holocene regional landscapes of SE Sweden. Holocene 25:178–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ammann B (1989) Late-Quaternary palynology at Lobsigensee—regional vegetation history and local lake development. Diss Bot 137:1–157Google Scholar
  6. Ammann B, Birks HJB, Brooks SJ, Eicher U, von Grafenstein U, Hofmann W, Lemdahl G, Schwander J, Tobolski K, Wick L (2000) Quantification of biotic responses to rapid climatic changes around the Younger Dryas—a synthesis. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 159:313–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ammann B, Tobolski K, Züllig H, Chaix L, Hofmann W, Elias SA, Wilkinson B, Siegenthaler U, Eicher U, Andrée M, Oeschger H (1985) Lobsigensee—late-glacial and Holocene environments of a lake on the central Swiss Plateau. Diss Bot 87:127–170Google Scholar
  8. Ammann B, van der Knaap WO, Lang G, Gaillard M-J, Kaltenrieder P, Rösch M, Finsinger W, Wright HE, Tinner W (2014) The potential of stomata analysis in conifers to estimate presence of conifer trees: examples from the Alps. Veget Hist Archaeobot 23:249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ammann B, van Leeuwen JFN, van der Knaap WO, Lischke H, Heiri O, Tinner W (2013a) Vegetation responses to rapid warming and to minor climatic fluctuations during the Late-Glacial Interstadial (GI-1) at Gerzensee (Switzerland). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 391:40–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ammann B, van Raden UJ, Schwander J et al (2013b) Responses to rapid warming at Termination 1a at Gerzensee (Central Europe): primary succession, albedo, soils, lake development, and ecological interactions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 391:111–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Andersen ST (1954) A late-glacial pollen diagram from southern Michigan, USA. Danm Geol Unders II 80:140–155Google Scholar
  12. Andersen ST (1960) Silicone oil as a mounting medium for pollen grains. Danm Geol Unders IV 4:1–24Google Scholar
  13. Andersen ST (1961) Vegetation and its environment in Denmark in the early Weichselian glacial (Last glacial). Danm Geol Unders II 75:1–175Google Scholar
  14. Andersen ST (1966) Interglacial vegetation succession and lake development in Denmark. Palaeobotanist 15:117–127Google Scholar
  15. Andersen ST (1969) Interglacial vegetation and soil development. Meddel Dansk Geol Foren 19:90–102Google Scholar
  16. Andersen ST (1970) The relative pollen productivity and pollen representation of north European trees, and correction factors for tree pollen spectra. Danm Geol Unders II 96:1–99Google Scholar
  17. Andersen ST (1973) The differential pollen productivity of trees and its significance for the interpretation of a pollen diagram from a forested region. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 109–115Google Scholar
  18. Andersen ST (1974a) Wind conditions and pollen deposition in a mixed deciduous forest. I: wind conditions and pollen dispersal. Grana 14:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Andersen ST (1974b) Wind conditions and pollen deposition in a mixed deciduous forest. II: seasonal and annual pollen deposition 1967–1972. Grana 14:64–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Andersen ST (1975) The Eemian freshwater deposit at Egernsund, South Jylland, and the Eemian landscape development in Denmark. Danm Geol Unders Årbog 1974:49–70Google Scholar
  21. Andersen ST (1978) Local and regional vegetational development in eastern Denmark in the Holocene. Danm Geol Unders Årbog 1976:5–27Google Scholar
  22. Andersen ST (1979) Brown earth and podzol: soil genesis illuminated by microfossil analysis. Boreas 8:59–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Andersen ST (1980a) Early and Late Weichselian chronology and birch pollen assemblages in Denmark. Boreas 9:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Andersen ST (1980b) Influence of climatic variation on pollen season severity in wind-pollinated trees and herbs. Grana 19:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Andersen ST (1984a) Forests at Løvenholm, Djursland, Denmark, at present and in the past. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Skrifter 24:1–208Google Scholar
  26. Andersen ST (1984b) Stages in soil development reconstructed by evidence from hypha fragments, pollen, and humus contents in soil profiles. In: Haworth EY, Lund JWG (eds) Lake sediments and environmental history. Leicester University Press, Leicester, pp 295–316Google Scholar
  27. Andersen ST (1988) Pollen spectra from the double passage-grave, Klekkendehøj, on Møn. Evidence of Swidden cultivation in the Neolithic in Denmark. J Danish Archaeol 7:77–92Google Scholar
  28. Andersen ST (1989) Natural and cultural landscapes since the Ice Age: shown by pollen analyses from small hollows in a forested area in Denmark. J Danish Archaeol 8:188–199Google Scholar
  29. Andersen ST (1990) Pollen spectra from the Bronze Age barrow at Egshvile, Thy, Denmark. J Danish Archaeol 9:153–156Google Scholar
  30. Andersen ST (1992) Early- and middle-Neolithic agriculture in Denmark: pollen spectra from soils in burial mounds of the Funnel Beaker Culture. J Eur Archaeol 1:153–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Andersen ST (1994) History of the terrestrial environment in the Quaternary of Denmark. Bull Geol Soc Denmark 41:219–228Google Scholar
  32. Andersen ST, Aaby B, Odgaard BV (1983) Current studies in vegetational history at the Geological Survey of Denmark. J Danish Archaeol 2:184–196Google Scholar
  33. Andersson G (1902) Hasseln i Sverige fordem och nu. Sver Geol Unders Series C 3:1–168Google Scholar
  34. Andersson G (1909) The climate of Sweden in the Late-Quaternary period. Facts and theories. Sver Geol Unders Series C Årbok 3:1–88Google Scholar
  35. Andreev AA, Tarasov PE, Wennrich V, Raschke E, Herzschuh U, Nowaczyk NR, Brigham-Grette J, Melles M (2014) Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene vegetation history of northeastern Russian Arctic inferred from the Lake El’Gygytgyn pollen record. Clim Past 10:1017–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Anonymous (1924) Pollen in peat. Naturalist 811:230Google Scholar
  37. Auer V (1921) Zur Kenntnis der Stratigrahie der mittelösterbottnischen Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica 18:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Auer V (1927) Stratigraphical and morphological investigations of peat bogs of southeastern Canada. Communicationes ex Instituto Quaestionum Forestalium Finlandiae Editae 12:1–62Google Scholar
  39. Autio J, Hicks S (2004) Annual variation in pollen deposition and meteorological conditions on the fell Aakenustunturi in northern Finland: potential for using fossil pollen as a climate proxy. Grana 43:31–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Baker AG, Perry C, Bhagwat SA, Vera FWM, Willis KJ (2017) Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores. Methods Ecol Evol 7:1273–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Baker AG, Zimny M, Keczynski A, Bhagwat SA, Willis KJ, Latałowa M (2016) Pollen productivity estimates from old-growth forest strongly differ from those obtained in cultural landscapes: evidence from the Białowieża National Park, Poland. Holocene 26:80–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Baker RG (1965) Late-glacial pollen and plant macrofossils from Spider Creek, southern St. Louis County, Minnesota. Geol Soc Am Bull 76:601–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ball IR (1975) Nature and formulation of biogeographical hypotheses. Syst Zool 24:407–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Barnekow L (1999) Holocene tree-line dynamics and inferred climatic changes in the Abisko area, northern Sweden, based on macrofossil and pollen records. Holocene 9:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Barnekow L (2000) Holocene regional and local vegetation history and lake-level changes in the Torneträsk area, northern Sweden. J Paleolimnol 23:399–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Behre K-E (1986) Anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams. AA Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  47. Behre K-E (1988) The role of man in European vegetation history. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 633–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Behre K-E (1990) Some reflections on anthropogenic indicators and the record of prehistoric occupation phases in pollen diagrams from the Near East. In: Bottema S, Entjes-Nieborg G, van Zeist W (eds) Man’s role in the shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean landscape. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 219–230Google Scholar
  49. Bennett KD (1983) Post-glacial population expansion of forest trees in Norfolk, UK. Nature 303:164–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bennett KD (1986) The rate of spread and population increase of forest trees during the postglacial. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 314:523–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bennett KD (1988) Post-glacial vegetation history: ecological considerations. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 699–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bennett KD (1990) Models of plant population growth and analogies with reaction kinetics. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 64:247–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Bennett KD (1994) PSIMPOLL version 2.23: a C program for analysing pollen data and plotting pollen diagrams. INQUA Commission for the Study of the Holocene: Working group on data-handling methods. Newsletter 11:4–6Google Scholar
  54. Bennett KD, Willis KJ (1995) The role of ecological factors in controlling vegetation dynamics on long temporal scales. Giornale Botanico Italiano 129:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Bennett KD, Willis KJ (2001) Pollen. In: Smol JP, Birks HJB, Last WM (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Terrestrial, algal, and siliceous indicators. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 3. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 5–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Berglund BE (1962) Vegetation på ön Senoren I. Bot Not 115:387–419Google Scholar
  57. Berglund BE (1966) Late-Quaternary vegetation in eastern Blekinge, south-eastern Sweden. A pollen analytical study I: late-glacial time. Opera Bot 12:1–180Google Scholar
  58. Berglund BE (1969) Vegetation and human influence in South Scandinavia during prehistoric time. Oikos 12:9–28Google Scholar
  59. Berglund BE (1971) Late-glacial stratigraphy and chronology in South Sweden in the light of biostratigraphic studies on Mt. Kullen, Scania. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 93:11–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Berglund BE (1973) Pollen dispersal and deposition in an area of south-eastern Sweden—some preliminary results. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 117–129Google Scholar
  61. Berglund BE (1982) Holocene chronology. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 104:256–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Berglund BE (1985) Early agriculture in Scandinavia: research problems related to pollen-analytical studies. Nor Archaeol Rev 18:77–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Berglund BE (ed) (1986a) Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester (Reprinted in 2003 by Blackburn Press, New Jersey)Google Scholar
  64. Berglund BE (1986b) The cultural landscape in a long-term perspective: methods and theories behind the research on land-use and landscape dynamics. Striae 24:79–87Google Scholar
  65. Berglund BE (ed) (1991) The cultural landscape during 6000 years in southern Sweden—the Ystad Project. Ecological Bulletins 41. Munksgaard International, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  66. Berglund BE (2003) Human impact and climate changes—synchronous events and a causal link? Quat Int 105:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Berglund BE, Birks HJB, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M, Wright HE (eds) (1996) Palaeoecological events during the last 15000 years: regional syntheses of palaeoecological studies of lakes and mires. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  68. Berglund BE, Digerfeldt G (1970) A palaeoecological study of the Late-Glacial lake at Torreberga, Scania, South Sweden. Oikos 21:98–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Berglund BE, Gaillard M-J, Björk L, Persson T (2008a) Long-term changes in floristic diversity in southern Sweden: palynological richness, vegetation dynamics and land-use. Veget Hist Archaeobot 17:573–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Berglund BE, Malmer N (1971) Soil conditions and Late-Glacial stratigraphy. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 93:11–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Berglund BE, Persson T, Björkman L (2008b) Late Quaternary landscape and vegetation diversity in a North European perspective. Quat Int 184:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Berglund BE, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M (1986) Pollen analysis and pollen diagrams. In: Berglund BE (ed) Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp 455–484Google Scholar
  73. Bernabo JC, Webb T (1977) Changing patterns in the Holocene pollen record of northeastern North America: a mapped summary. Quat Res 8:64–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Bertsch K (1924) Paläobotanische Untersuchungen im Reichermoos. Jahresh Ver Vaterl Natkd Württ 80:1–19Google Scholar
  75. Bertsch K (1931) Paläobotanische Monographie des Federseerieds. Bibl Bot 103:1–127Google Scholar
  76. Bertsch K (1935) Der Deutsche Wald im Wechsel der Zeiten. Franz Heine, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  77. Bertsch K (1940) Geschichte des deutsches Waldes. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  78. Bertsch K (1942) Lehrbuch der Pollenanalyse - Handbücher der Praktischen Vorgeschichtsforschung, vol 3. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  79. Beug H-J (2004) Leitfaden der Pollenbestimmung für Mitteleuropa und angrenzende Gebiete. Pfeil, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  80. Birks HH (1973) Modern macrofossil assemblages in lake sediments in Minnesota. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 173–189Google Scholar
  81. Birks HH (1984) Late-Quaternary pollen and plant macrofossil stratigraphy at Lochan an Druim, north-west Scotland. In: Haworth EY, Lund JWG (eds) Lake sediments and environmental history. University of Leicester Press, Leicester, pp 377–405Google Scholar
  82. Birks HH (1991) Holocene vegetational history and climatic change in west Spitsbergen—plant macrofossils from Skardtjørna. Holocene 1:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Birks HH (1993) The importance of plant macrofossils in Late-Glacial climatic reconstructions—an example from western Norway. Quat Sci Rev 12:719–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Birks HH (2000) Aquatic macrophyte vegetation development in Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late-glacial and early-Holocene. J Paleolimnol 23:7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Birks HH (2008) The Late-Quaternary history of arctic and alpine plants. Plant Ecol Divers 1:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Birks HH (2017a) My life with macrofossils. J Paleolimnol 57:181–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Birks HH (2017b) Plant macrofossil introduction. In: Reference module in earth systems and environmental sciences. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  88. Birks HH, Battarbee RW, Beerling DJ et al (1996) The Kråkenes late-glacial palaeoenvironmental project. J Paleolimnol 15:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Birks HH, Battarbee RW, Birks HJB (2000) The development of the aquatic ecosystem at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late glacial and early Holocene—a synthesis. J Paleolimnol 23:91–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Birks HH, Birks HJB (2000) Future uses of pollen analysis must include plant macrofossils. J Biogeogr 27:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Birks HH, Birks HJB (2006) Multi-proxy studies in palaeolimnology. Veget Hist Archaeobot 15:235–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Birks HH, Birks HJB (2013) Vegetation responses to late-glacial climate changes in western Norway. Preslia 85:215–237Google Scholar
  93. Birks HH, Birks HJB, Kaland PE, Moe D (eds) (1988) The cultural landscape past, present and future. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  94. Birks HH, Bjune AE (2010) Can we detect a west Norwegian tree line from modern samples of plant remains and pollen? Results from the DOORMAT project. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:325–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Birks HH, Mathewes RW (1978) Studies in the vegetational history of Scotland V. Late Devensian and early Flandrian pollen and macrofossil stratigraphy at Abernethy Forest, Inverness-shire. New Phytol 80:455–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Birks HJB (1973a) Modern pollen rain studies in some arctic and alpine environments. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 143–168Google Scholar
  97. Birks HJB (1973b) Past and present vegetation of the Isle of Skye—a palaeoecological study. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  98. Birks HJB (1976) Late-Wisconsinan vegetational history at Wolf Creek, Central Minnesota. Ecol Monogr 46:395–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Birks HJB (1981) Late Wisconsin vegetational and climatic history at Kylen Lake, northeastern Minnesota. Quat Res 16:322–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Birks HJB (1985) Recent and possible future mathematical developments in quantitative palaeoecology. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 50:107–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Birks HJB (1986) Late Quaternary biotic changes in terrestrial and limnic environments, with particular reference to north-west Europe. In: Berglund BE (ed) Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp 3–65Google Scholar
  102. Birks HJB (1989) Holocene isochrone maps and patterns of tree-spreading in the British Isles. J Biogeogr 16:503–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Birks HJB (1993) Quaternary palaeoecology and vegetation science—current contributions and possible future developments. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 79:153–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Birks HJB (2005) Fifty years of Quaternary pollen analysis in Fennoscandia 1954–2004. Grana 44:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Birks HJB (2008) Holocene climate research—progress, paradigms, and problems. In: Battarbee RW, Binney HA (eds) Natural climate variability and global warming: a Holocene perspective. Wiley, Chichester, pp 7–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Birks HJB (2012) Conclusions and future challenges. In: Birks HJB, Lotter AF, Juggins S, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Data handling and numerical techniques. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 5. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 643–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Birks HJB (2014) Challenges in the presentation and analysis of plant-macrofossil stratigraphical data. Veget Hist Archaeobot 23:309–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Birks HJB (2016) Herbert E Wright, Jr—a biography. Sedimental Journeys—the life and legacy of Herb Wright.
  109. Birks HJB (2017) European palaeoecological pioneers in Minnesota 1958–1968. Sedimental Journeys—the life and legacy of Herb Wright.
  110. Birks HJB, Birks HH (1980) Quaternary palaeoecology. Edward Arnold, London (Reprinted in 2004 by Blackburn Press, New Jersey)Google Scholar
  111. Birks HJB, Birks HH (2004) The rise and fall of forests. Science 305:484–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Birks HJB, Birks HH (2008) Biological responses to rapid climate changes at the Younger Dryas-Holocene transition at Kråkenes, western Norway. Holocene 18:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Birks HJB, Birks HH, Ammann B (2016a) The fourth dimension of vegetation. Science 354:412–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Birks HJB, Deacon J, Peglar SM (1975) Pollen maps for the British Isles 5000 years ago. Proc R Soc Lond B 189:87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Birks HJB, Felde VA, Seddon AWR (2016b) Biodiversity trends within the Holocene. Holocene 26:994-1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Birks HJB, Gordon AD (1985) Numerical methods in Quaternary pollen analysis. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  117. Birks HJB, Lotter AF, Juggins S, Smol JP (eds) (2012) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Data handling and numerical techniques. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 5. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  118. Birks HJB, Saarnisto M (1975) Isopollen maps and principal components analysis of Finnish pollen data for 4000, 6000, and 8000 years ago. Boreas 4:77–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Birks HJB, Seppä H (2010) Late-Quaternary palaeoclimatic research in Fennoscandia—a historical review. Boreas 39:655–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Birks HJB, Tinner W (2016) European tree dynamics and invasions during the Quaternary. In: Krumm F, Quadt V (eds) Introduced tree species to European forests: challenges and opportunities. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, pp 20–42Google Scholar
  121. Birks HJB, West RG (eds) (1973) Quaternary plant ecology. In: Proceedings of the 14th symposium of the British Ecological Society. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  122. Bjune AE (2014) After 8 years of annual pollen trapping across the tree line in western Norway, are the data still anomalous? Veget Hist Archaeobot 23:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Blaauw M (2010) Methods and code for ‘classical’ age-modelling of radiocarbon sequences. Quat Geochronol 5:512–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Blaauw M, Christen JA (2011) Flexible palaeoclimate age-depth models using an autoregressive gamma process. Bayesian Anal 6:457–474Google Scholar
  125. Blaauw M, Heegaard E (2012) Estimation of age-depth relationships. In: Birks HJB, Lotter AF, Juggins S, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Data handling and numerical techniques. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 5. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 379-413Google Scholar
  126. Blackburn KB (1946) On a peat from the Island of Barra, Outer Hebrides. Data for the study of post-glacial history. X. New Phytol 45:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Blackburn KB (1952) The dating of a deposit containing an elk skeleton found at Neasham near Darlington, County Durham. New Phytol 51:364–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Blackburn KB (1953) A long pollen diagram from Northumberland. Trans North Nat Union 2:40–43Google Scholar
  129. Blytt A (1876) Essay on the immigration of the Norwegian flora during the alternating rainy and dry periods. Albert Cammermeyer, ChristianaGoogle Scholar
  130. Bonny AP (1976) Recruitment of pollen to the seston and sediment of some Lake District lakes. J Ecol 64:859–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Bonny AP (1978) The effect of pollen recruitment processes on pollen distribution over the sediment surface of a small lake in Cumbria. J Ecol 66:385–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Booth RK (2013) Palynologist as artist. Artist as palynologist. Accessed 5 Mar 2017
  133. Bottema S, Woldring H (1990) Anthropogenic indicators in the pollen record of the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Bottema S, Entjes-Nieborg G, van Zeist W (eds) Man’s role in the shaping of the Eastern mediterranean landscape. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 231–264Google Scholar
  134. Bradbury JP, Dean WE (eds) (1993) Elk Lake, Minnesota: evidence for rapid climate change in the north-central United States. Geological Society of America special paper 276. Geological Society of America, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  135. Bradbury JP, Waddington JCB (1973) The impact of European settlement on Shagawa Lake, Northeastern Minnesota. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 289–307Google Scholar
  136. Bradshaw EG, Rasmussen P, Odgaard BV (2005) Mid- to late-Holocene land-use change and lake development at Dallund Sø, Denmark: synthesis of multiproxy data, linking land and lake. Holocene 15:1152–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Bradshaw R, Hannon G (1992) Climatic change, human influence and disturbance regime in the control of vegetation dynamics within Fiby Forest, Sweden. J Ecol 80:625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Bradshaw RHW (1988) Spatially-precise studies of forest dynamics. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 725–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Bradshaw RHW (2013) Stand-scale palynology. In: Elias SA, Mock CJ (eds) Encyclopedia of Quaternary science, vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 846–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Bradshaw RHW, Jones CS, Edwards SJ, Hannon GE (2015) Forest continuity and conservation value in western Europe. Holocene 25:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Bradshaw RHW, Lindbladh M (2005) Regional spread and stand-scale establishment of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies in Scandinavia. Ecology 86:1679–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Bradshaw RHW, Sykes MT (2014) Ecosystem dynamics. From the past to the future. Wiley-Blackwell, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  143. Brewer S, Giesecke T, Davis BAS et al (2016) Late-glacial and Holocene European pollen data. J Maps doi: Google Scholar
  144. Brewer S, Jackson ST, Williams JW (2012) Paleoecoinformatics: applying geohistorical data to ecological questions. Trends Ecol Evol 27:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Bright RC (1966) Pollen and seed stratigraphy of Swan Lake, southeastern Idaho: its relation to regional vegetational history and to Lake Bonneville history. Tebiwa 9:1–28Google Scholar
  146. Broström A (2002) Estimating source area of pollen and pollen productivity in the cultural landscapes of southern Sweden—developing a palynological tool for quantifying past plant cover. PhD thesis, Lund University, LundGoogle Scholar
  147. Bunting MJ, Middleton R (2009) Equifinality and uncertainty in the interpretation of pollen data: the multiple scenario approach to reconstruction of past vegetation mosaics. Holocene 19:799–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Burney DA, Robinson GS, Burney LP (2003) Sporormiella and the late Holocene extinctions in Madagascar. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:10800–10805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Chamberlin TC (1890) The method of multiple working hypotheses. Science 15:92–96Google Scholar
  150. Chambers JW, Cameron NG (2001) A rod-less piston corer for lake sediments: an improved, rope-operated percussion corer. J Paleolimnol 25:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Cheetham CA (1925) Yorkshire Naturalists’ Union: botanical section. Naturalist 826:340–341Google Scholar
  152. Chen Y (1988) Early Holocene population expansion of some rainforest trees at Lake Barrine basin, Australia. Aust J Ecol 13:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Clark JS (1988a) Particle motion and theory of charcoal analysis: source area, transport, deposition, and sampling. Quat Res 30:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Clark JS (1988b) Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: application to fire history in northwestern Minnesota. Quat Res 30:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Clark JS (1989) Effects of long-term water balances on fire regime, north-western Minnesota. J Ecol 77:989–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Clark JS (1990) Fire and climate change during the last 750 years in northwestern Minnesota. Ecol Monogr 60:135–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Clark JS (1993) Fire, climate change, and forest processes during the past 2000 years. In: Bradbury JP, Dean WE (eds) Elk Lake, Minnesota: evidence for rapid climate change in the north-central United States. Geological Society of America special paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Colinvaux PA (1974) Gunnar Erdtman is dead. Yale Rev 63:1–3Google Scholar
  159. Colombaroli D, Henne PD, Kaltenrieder P, Gobet E, Tinner W (2010) Species responses to fire, climate and human impact at tree line in the Alps as evidenced by palaeo-environmental records and a dynamic simulation model. J Ecol 98:1346–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Conedera M, Tinner W, Crameri S, Torriami D, Herold A (2006) Taxon-related pollen source areas for lake basins in the southern Alps: an empirical approach. Veget Hist Archaeobot 15:263–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Conway VM (1948) Von Post’s work on climatic rhythms. New Phytol 47:220–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Craig AJ (1972) Pollen influx to laminated sediments: a pollen diagram from northeastern Minnesota. Ecology 53:46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Cranwell LM, von Post L (1936) Post-Pleistocene pollen diagrams from the southern hemisphere I: New Zealand. Geogr Ann 3–4:308–347Google Scholar
  164. Croudace IW, Rothwell RG (eds) (2015) Micro-XRF studies of sediment cores. Applications of a non-destructive tool for the environmental sciences. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 17. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  165. Crowder AS, Cuddy DG (1973) Pollen in a small river basin: Wilton Creek, Ontario. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 61–77Google Scholar
  166. Cui Q-Y, Gaillard M-J, Lemdahl G, Sugita S, Greisman A, Jacobson GL, Olsson F (2013) The role of tree composition in Holocene fire history of the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden, as revealed by the application of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm: implications for biodiversity and climate-change issues. Holocene 23:1747–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Cushing EJ (1963) Late-Wisconsin pollen stratigraphy in east-central Minnesota. PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  168. Cushing EJ (1967a) Evidence for differential pollen preservation in late Quaternary sediments in Minnesota. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 4:87–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Cushing EJ (1967b) Late-Wisconsin pollen stratigraphy and the glacial sequence in Minnesota. In: Cushing EJ, Wright HE (eds) Quaternary paleoecology. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 59–88Google Scholar
  170. Cushing EJ, Shane LCK, King GA (2002) The art of pollen preparation. Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  171. Cushing EJ, Wright HE (1965) Hand-operated corers for lake sediments. Ecology 46:380–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Davis MB (1963) On the theory of pollen analysis. Am J Sci 261:897–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Davis MB (1967a) Pollen accumulation rates at Rogers Lake, Connecticut during late- and post-glacial time. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 2:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Davis MB (1967b) Climatic changes in southern Connecticut recorded by pollen deposition at Rogers Lake. Ecology 50:409–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Davis MB (1967c) Pollen deposition in lakes as measured by sediment traps. Bull Geol Soc Am 78:849–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Davis MB (1968) Pollen grains in lake sediments: redeposition caused by seasonal water circulation. Science 162:796–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Davis MB (1973) Redeposition of pollen grains in lake sediment. Limnol Oceanogr 18:44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Davis MB (1976) Pleistocene biogeography of temperate deciduous forests. Geosci Man 13:13–26Google Scholar
  179. Davis MB (1983a) Quaternary history of deciduous forests of eastern North America and Europe. Ann Mo Bot Gard 70:550–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Davis MB (1983b) Holocene vegetational history of the eastern United States. In: Wright HE (ed) Late-Quaternary environments of the United States. vol 2: the Holocene. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp 166–181Google Scholar
  181. Davis MB (1987) Invasions of forest communities during the Holocene: beech and hemlock in the Great Lakes region. In: Gray AJ, Crawley MJ, Edwards PJ (eds) Colonization, succession and stability. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 373–393Google Scholar
  182. Davis MB (2000) Palynology after Y2K—understanding the source area of pollen in sediments. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 28:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Davis MB, Brubaker LB (1973) Differential sedimentation of pollen grains in lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 18:635–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Davis MB, Brubaker LB, Beiswenger JM (1971) Pollen grains in lake sediments: pollen percentages in surface sediments from southern Michigan. Quat Res 1:450–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Davis MB, Brubaker LB, Webb T (1973) Calibration of absolute pollen influx. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 9–25Google Scholar
  186. Davis MB, Calcote RR, Sugita S, Takahara H (1998) Patchy invasion and the origin of a hemlock-hardwoods forest mosaic. Ecology 79:2641–2659Google Scholar
  187. Davis MB, Deevey ES (1964) Pollen accumulation rates: estimates from late-glacial sediment of Rogers Lake. Science 145:1293–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Davis MB, Moeller RE, Ford J (1984) Sediment focusing and pollen influx. In: Haworth EY, Lund JWG (eds) Lake sediments and environmental history. Leicester University Press, Leicester, pp 261–293Google Scholar
  189. Davis MB, Sugita S, Calcote RR, Ferrari JB, Frelich LE (1994) Historical development of alternative communities in a hemlock-hardwood forest in northern Michigan, USA. In: Edwards PJ, May RM, Webb NR (eds) Large-scale ecology and conservation biology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 19–39Google Scholar
  190. Davis OK (1987) Spores of the dung fungus Sporormiella: increased abundance in historic sediments and before Pleistocene megafaunal extinction. Quat Res 28:290–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Davis OK (2001) Lucy May Cranwell Smith 1907–2000. Accessed 17 Mar 2017
  192. Davis OK (2004) Palynology in North America. Accessed 5 April 2017
  193. Davis OK, Shafer DS (2006) Sporormiella fungal spores, a palynological means of detecting herbivore density. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 237:40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Dawson A, Paciorek CJ, McLachlan JS, Goring S, Williams JW, Jackson ST (2016) Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data. Quat Sci Rev 137:156–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. De Klerk P (2017) The roots of pollen analysis—the road to Lennart von Post. Veget Hist Archaeobot. doi: Google Scholar
  196. Deevey ES (1939) Studies on Connecticut lake sediments. I: a postglacial climatic chronology for southern New England. Am J Sci 237:691–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Deevey ES (1943) Additional pollen analyses from southern New England. Am J Sci 241:717–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Deevey ES (1946) An absolute pollen chronology in Switzerland. Am J Sci 244:442–447Google Scholar
  199. Deevey ES (1967) Introduction. In: Martin PS, Wright HE Jr (eds) Pleistocene extinctions. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 63–72Google Scholar
  200. Deevey ES (1969) Coaxing history to conduct experiments. BioScience 19:40–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Digerfeldt G (1972) The post-glacial development of Lake Trummen. Regional vegetation history, water-level changes and palaeolimnology. Folia Limnol Scand 16:1–104Google Scholar
  202. Dimbleby GW (1957) Pollen analysis of terrestrial soils. New Phytol 56:12–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Dimbleby GW (1961) Soil pollen analysis. J Soil Sci 12:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Draper P (1929) A comparison of pollen spectra of old and young bogs in the Erie Basin. Proc Oklahoma Acad Sci 9:50–53Google Scholar
  205. Edlund AF, Winthrop ZA (2014) Sharing what he saw: an appreciation of Gunnar Erdtman’s life and illustrations. Grana 53:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Edwards ME (1986) Disturbance histories of four snowdonian woodlands and their relation to Atlantic bryophyte distributions. Biol Conserv 37:301–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Edwards KJ (1983) Quaternary palynology: consideration of a discipline. Prog Phys Geogr 7:113–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Edwards KJ (2017) Pollen, women, war and other things: reflections on the history of palynology. Veget Hist Archaeobot. doi: Google Scholar
  209. Edwards KJ, Fyfe RM, Jackson ST (2017) The first 100 years of pollen analysis. Nat Plants 3:17001Google Scholar
  210. Eide W, Birks HH, Bigelow NH, Peglar SM, Birks HJB (2006) Holocene forest development along the Setesdal valley, southern Norway, reconstructed from macrofossil and pollen evidence. Veget Hist Archaeobot 15:65–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Elias SA, Short SK, Birks HH (1997) Late Wisconsin environment of the Bering Land Bridge. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 136:293–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Elias SA, Short SK, Nelson CH, Birks HH (1996) The life and times of the Bering Land Bridge. Nature 382:60–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Erdtman G (1920) Einige geobotanische Resultate einer pollenanalytischen Untersuchung von südwest-schwedischen Torfmooren. Svensk Bot Tidskr 14:292–299Google Scholar
  214. Erdtman G (1921) Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen von Torfmooren und marinen Sedimenten in Südwest-Schweden. Archiv für Botanik 17:1–173Google Scholar
  215. Erdtman G (1924a) Studies in micro-palæontology, I-IV. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 46:676–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Erdtman G (1924b) Studies in the micropalaeontology of postglacial deposits in Northern Scotland and the Scottish Isles, with especial reference to the history of woodlands. J Linn Soc (Bot) 46:449–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Erdtman G (1927) Peat deposits of the Cleveland Hills. Naturalist 9:39–46Google Scholar
  218. Erdtman G (1928a) Studies in the postarctic history of the forests of northwestern Europe. I: investigations in the British Isles. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 50:123–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Erdtman G (1928b) Studien über die postarktische Geschichte der nordwesteuropäischen Wälder. II: Untersuchungen in Nordwestdeutschland und Holland. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 50:368–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Erdtman G (1928c) Études sur l’histoire postarctique des forêts de l-Europe nord-ouest. III: Recherches dans la Belgique et au nord de la France. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 50:419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Erdtman G (1929) Some aspects of the post-glacial history of British forests. J Ecol 17:112–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Erdtman G (1935) Pollen statistics: a botanical and geological method. In: Wodehouse RP (ed) Pollen grains. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 110–125Google Scholar
  223. Erdtman G (1937) Pollen grains recovered from the atmosphere over the Atlantic. Acta Horti Gothenburgensis 12:185–196Google Scholar
  224. Erdtman G (1938) Pollenanalys och pollenmorfologi. Svensk Bot Tidskr 32:130Google Scholar
  225. Erdtman G (1943a) An Introduction to pollen analysis. Chronica Botanica Company, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  226. Erdtman G (1943b) Pollenspektra från svenska växtsamhällen jämte pollenanalytiska markstudier i södra Lappland. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 65:37–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Erdtman G (1944) Botanisk pollenanalys. Nägra inlägg. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 66:411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Erdtman G (1952) Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy: angiosperms (An introduction to palynology I). Almqvist & Wiksell, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  229. Erdtman G (1960) The acetolysis method: a revised description. Svensk Bot Tidskr 54:561–564Google Scholar
  230. Erdtman G (1966) Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy: angiosperms (An introduction to palynology I). Corrected reprint of the 1952 edition with a new addendum edn. Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  231. Erdtman G (1967) Glimpses of palynology 1916–1966. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 1:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Erdtman G (1969) Handbook of palynology: morphology, taxonomy, ecology. Munksgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  233. Erdtman G (1972a) Pollen and spore morphology/plant taxonomy: gymnospermae, pteridophyta, bryophyta (An introduction to palynology II). Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  234. Erdtman G (1972b) Pollen statistics and primeval agriculture in Denmark. Pollen Spores 14:61–64Google Scholar
  235. Erdtman G, Berglund BE, Praglowski JR (1961) An introduction to a Scandinavian pollen flora. Almqvist & Wiksell, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  236. Erdtman G, Praglowski J, Nilsson S (1962) An introduction to a Scandinavian pollen flora II. Almqvist & Wiksell, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  237. Erdtman G, Erdtman H (1933) The improvement of pollen-analysis technique. Svensk Bot Tidskr 27:347–357Google Scholar
  238. Fægri K (1935) Quartärgeologicshe Untersuchungen im westlichen Norwegen. I: Über zwei präboreale Klimaschwankungen im südwestlichsten Teil. Bergens Museums Årbok 1935:1–40Google Scholar
  239. Fægri K (1940) Quartärgeologicshe Untersuchungen im westlichen Norwegen. II: Zur spätquartären Geschichte Jærens. Bergens Museums Årbok 1939–1940:1–120Google Scholar
  240. Fægri K (1943) Studies on the Pleistocene of western Norway III: Bømlo. Bergens Museums Årbok 1943:1–100Google Scholar
  241. Fægri K (1944) On the introduction of agriculture in western Norway. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 66:449–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Fægri K (1945) A pollen diagram from the sub-alpine regions of central south Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift 25:99–126Google Scholar
  243. Fægri K (1947) Heterodokse tanker om pollenanalysen. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 69:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Fægri K (1953) On the peri-glacial flora of Jæren. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift 14:61–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Fægri K (1954) On age and origin of the beech forest (Fagus silvatica L.) at Lygrefjorden, near Bergen (Norway). Danm Geol Unders II 80:230–249Google Scholar
  246. Fægri K (1966) Some problems of representivity in pollen analysis. Palaeobotanist 15:135–140Google Scholar
  247. Fægri K (1971) In memoriam Johs. Iversen. Pollen Spores 13:367–380Google Scholar
  248. Fægri K (1973) In memoriam O. Gunnar E. Erdtman 1897–1973. Pollen Spores 15:5–12Google Scholar
  249. Fægri K (1974) Quaternary pollen analysis—past, present and future. Adv Pollen Spore Res 1:62–69Google Scholar
  250. Fægri K (1981) Some pages of the history of pollen analysis. Striae 14:42–47Google Scholar
  251. Fægri K (1985) The importance of palynology for the understanding of the archaeological environment in northern Europe. Centre de Recherches Archáeologiques Notes et Monographies Techniques 17:333–342Google Scholar
  252. Fægri K, Iversen J (1950) Text-book of modern pollen analysis. Munksgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  253. Fægri K, Iversen J (1964) Textbook of pollen analysis. Revised 2nd edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  254. Fægri K, Iversen J, Kaland PE, Krzywinski K (1989) Textbook of pollen analysis, 4th edn. The Blackburn Press, CaldwellGoogle Scholar
  255. Fagerlind F (1949) Some reflections on the history of the climate and vegetation of the Hawaiian Islands. Svensk Bot Tidskr 43:73–81Google Scholar
  256. Fagerlind F (1952) The real signification of pollen diagrams. Bot Not 105:185–224Google Scholar
  257. Finsinger W, Tinner W (2005) Minimum count sums for charcoal-concentration estimates in pollen slides: accuracy and potential errors. Holocene 15:293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Firbas F (1934a) Über die Bestimmung der Walddichte und der Vegetation waldloser Gebiete mit Hilfe der Pollenanalyse. Planta 22:109–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Firbas F (1934b) Zur spät- und nacheiszeitlichen Vegetationsgeschichte der Rheinpfalz. Beih Bot Centbl 52(B):119–156Google Scholar
  260. Firbas F (1934c) Die Vegetationsentwicklung des mitteleuropäischen Spätglazials. Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften Nachrichten. Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse - Fachgruppe VI 1:17–24Google Scholar
  261. Firbas F (1937) Der pollenanalytische Nachweis des Getreidebaus. Zeitschr Bot 31:447–478Google Scholar
  262. Firbas F (1949) Spät- und nacheiszeitliche Waldgeschichte Mitteleuropas nördlich der Alpen. I. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  263. Firbas F, Broihan F (1936) Das Alter der Trockentorfschichten im Hils. Planta 26:291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Flenley JR (1973) The use of modern pollen rain samples in the study of the vegetational history of tropical regions. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 131–141Google Scholar
  265. Flessa KW, Jackson ST (2005) The geological record of ecological dynamics. Understanding the biotic effects of future environmental change. National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  266. Francus P (ed) (2004) Image analysis, sediments and paleoenvironments. Developments in paleoenvironmental research. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  267. Fraser GK (1933) Studies of certain Scottish moorlands in relation to tree growth. Bull For Commission Lond 15:1–128Google Scholar
  268. Fraser GK (1943) Peat deposits of Scotland Part I—general account. Geol Survey Gt Br Scotl 36:1–55Google Scholar
  269. Fraser GK (1948) Peat deposits of Scotland part II—peat mosses of Aberdeenshire, Banffshire & Morayshire. Geol Survey Gt Br Scotl 36:1–29Google Scholar
  270. Fraser GK, Godwin H (1955) Two Scottish pollen diagrams: Carnwath Moss, Lanarkshire and Strichen Moss, Aberdeenshire. Data for the study of post-glacial history XVII. New Phytol 54:216–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Fredskild B (1969) A postglacial standard pollen diagram from Peary Land, North Greenland. Pollen Spores 11:573–585Google Scholar
  272. Fredskild B (1973) Studies in the vegetational history of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 198:1–245Google Scholar
  273. Fredskild B (1975) A late-glacial and early post-glacial pollen-concentration diagram from Langeland, Denmark. Geol Fören Stockh Förh 97:151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Fries M (1949) Anmälanden och kritiker. Olof H Selling: On the Late Quaternary history of the Hawaiian vegetation. Studies in Hawaiian pollen statistics, part III: 1948. Geol Fören Stockh Förh 71:347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Fries M (1967) Lennart von Post’s pollen diagram series of 1916. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 4:9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Gaillard M-J, Berglund BE (eds) (1998) Quantification of land surfaces cleared of forests during the Holocene—Modern pollen/vegetation/landscape relationships as an aid to the interpretation of fossil pollen data. Paläoklimaforschung 27. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  277. Gaillard M-J, Birks HJB, Ihse M, Runborg S (1998) Pollen/landscape calibrations based on modern pollen assemblages from surface-sediment samples and landscape mapping—a pilot study in South Sweden. Paläoklimaforschung 27:31–52Google Scholar
  278. Gaillard M-J, Sugita S, Bunting MJ et al (2008) The use of modelling and simulation approach in reconstructing past landscapes from fossil pollen data: a review and results from the POLLANDCAL network. Veget Hist Archaeobot 17:419–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Giesecke T, Bennett KD (2004) The Holocene spread of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Fennoscandia and adjacent areas. J Biogeogr 31:1523–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Giesecke T, Brewer S, Finsinger W, Leydet M, Bradshaw RHW (2017) Patterns and dynamics of European vegetation change over the last 15000 years. J Biogeogr 44:1441–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Giesecke T, Davis BAS, Brewer S et al (2014) Towards mapping the late Quaternary vegetation change of Europe. Veget Hist Archaeobot 23:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Giesecke T, de Beaulieu J-L, Leydet-Barbier M (2016) The European pollen database: research tool and community. PAGES News 24:48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Giesecke T, Fontana SL (2008) Revisiting pollen accumulation rates from Swedish lake sediments. Holocene 18:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Giesecke T, Fontana SL, van der Knaap WO, Pardoe HS, Pidek IA (2010a) From early pollen trapping experiments to the Pollen Monitoring Programme. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Giesecke T, van der Knaap WO, Bittmann F (2010b) Towards quantitative palynology: using pollen accumulation rates and models of pollen dispersal. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:243–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Gill J (2013) Is pollen analysis dead? Paleoecology in the era of big data. The contemplative mammoth.
  287. Gill JL, McLauchlan KK, Skibbe AM, Goring S, Zirbel CR, Williams JW (2013) Linking abundances of the dung fungus Sporormiella to the density of bison: implications for assessing grazing by megaherbivores in palaeorecords. J Ecol 101:1125–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Gill JL, Williams JW, Jackson ST, Donnelly JP, Schellinger GC (2012) Climatic and megaherbiovry controls on late-glacial vegetation dynamics: a new, high-resolution, multi-proxy record from Silver Lake, Ohio. Quat Sci Rev 34:66–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Gill JL, Williams JW, Jackson ST, Lininger KB, Robinson GS (2009) Pleistocene megafaunal collapse, novel plant communities, and enhanced fire regimes in North America. Science 326:1100–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Glew JR (1995) Conversion of shallow water gravity coring equipment for deep water operation. J Paleolimnol 14:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Godłowska M, Kozłowski JK, Starkel L, Wasylikowa K (1987) Neolithic settlement at Pleszów and changes in the natural environment in the Vistula Valley. Przeglad Archeologiczny 34:133–159Google Scholar
  292. Godwin H (1934a) Pollen analysis: an outline of the problems and potentialities of the method. Part I: technique and interpretation. New Phytol 33:278–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Godwin H (1934b) Pollen analysis: an outline of the problems and potentialities of the method. Part II: general applications of pollen analysis. New Phytol 33:325–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Godwin H (1940) Pollen analysis and forest history of England and Wales. New Phytol 39:370–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Godwin H (1958) Pollen analyis in mineral soil. An interpretation of a podzol pollen analysis by G. W. Dimbleby. Flora 146:321–327Google Scholar
  296. Godwin H (1960) Radiocarbon dating and Quaternary history in Britain. Proc R Soc Lond B 153:287–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Godwin H (1968) The development of Quaternary palynology in the British Isles. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 6:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Godwin H (1973) Obituary: tribute to four botanists. New Phytol 72:1245–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Godwin H (1978) Fenland: its ancient past and uncertain future. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  300. Godwin H (1981) The archives of the peat bogs. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  301. Godwin H, Walker D, Willis EH (1957) Radiocarbon dating and post-glacial vegetational history: Scaleby Moss. Proc R Soc Lond B 147:352–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Godwin H, Willis EH (1959) Radiocarbon dating of the late-glacial period in Britain. Proc R Soc Lond B 150:199–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Goring S, Dawson A, Simpson GL, Ram K, Graham RW, Grimm EC, Williams JW (2015) neotoma: a programmatic interface to the Neotoma Paleoecological Database. Open Quat 1:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Gould SJ (1965) Is uniformitarianism necessary? Am J Sci 163:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Granlund E (1932) De svenska högmossarnas geologi. Deras bildningsbetingelser, utvecklingshistoria och utbredning jämte sambandet mellan högmossebildning och försumpning. Sver Geol Unders Series C 373:1–193Google Scholar
  306. Green DG (1981) Time series and postglacial forest ecology. Quat Res 15:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Green DG (1983) The ecological interpretation of fine resolution pollen records. New Phytol 94:459–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Grimm EC (1988) Data analysis and display. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 43–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Grimm EC (1990) TILIA and TILIA GRAPH: PC spreadsheet and graphics software for pollen data INQUA Commission for the Study of the Holocene: Working group on data-handling methods. Newsletter 4:5–7Google Scholar
  310. Grimm EC, Bradshaw RHW, Brewer S, Flantua S, Giesecke T, Lézine A-M, Takahara H, Williams JW (2013) Databases and their application. In: Elias SA, Mock CJ (eds) Encyclopedia of Quaternary science, vol 3, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 831–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Groenmann-van Waateringe W, van Geel B (2017) Raised bed agriculture in northwest Europe triggered by climatic change around 850 bc: a hypothesis. Environ Archaeol 22:166–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Gullvåg B (1972) Gunnar Erdtman 28.11.1897–18.2.1973. Grana 12:129–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Hall AR (1980) Late Pleistocene deposits at Wing, Rutland. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 289:135–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Hansen BCS (1995) Conifer stomate analysis as a paleoecological tool: an example from the Hudson Bay Lowlands. Can J Bot 73:244–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Hansen BCS, MacDonald GM, Moser KA (1996) Identifying the tundra-forest border in the stomate record: an analysis of lake surface samples from the Yellowknife area, Northwest Territories, Canada. Can J Bot 74:796–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Havinga AJ (1964) Investigation into the differential corrosion susceptibility of pollen and spores. Pollen Spores 6:621–635Google Scholar
  317. Havinga AJ (1967) Palynology and pollen preservation. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 2:81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Havinga AJ (1971) An experimental investigation into the decay of pollen and spores in various soil types. In: Brooks J, Grant P, Muir M, van Gijzel P, Shaw G (eds) Sporopollenin. Academic Press, London, pp 446–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Hedberg O (2000) Palynology in perspective. In: Nordenstam B, El-Ghazaly G, Kassas M (eds) Plant systematics for the 21st century. Portland Press, London, pp 25–31Google Scholar
  320. Heer O (1865) Die Urwelt der Schweiz. Schulthess, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  321. Heiri C, Bugmann H, Tinner W, Heiri O, Lischke H (2006) A model-based reconstruction of Holocene treeline dynamics in the Central Swiss Alps. J Ecol 94:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Hellman SEV, Gaillard M-J, Broström A, Sugita S (2008) The REVEALS model, a new tool to estimate past regional plant abundance from pollen data in large lakes: validation in southern Sweden. J Quat Sci 23:21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Henne PD, Elkin CM, Bugmann HKM, Tinner W (2011) Did soil development limit spruce (Picea abies) expansion in the Central Alps during the Holocene? Testing a palaeobotanical hypothesis using a dynamic landscape model. J Biogeogr 38:933–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Henne PD, Elkin C, Colombaroli D, Samartin S, Bugmann H, Heiri O, Tinner W (2013) Impacts of changing climate and land use on vegetation dynamics in a Mediterranean ecosystem: insights from paleoecology and dynamic modeling. Landsc Ecol 28:819–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Henne PD, Elkin C, Franke J, Colombaroli D, Calò C, La Mantia T, Pasta S, Conedera M, Dermody O, Tinner W (2015) Reviving extinct Mediterranean forest communities may improve ecosystem potential in a warmer future. Front Ecol Evol 13:356–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Herzschuh U, Birks HJB, Laepple T, Andreev AA, Melles M, Brigham-Grette J (2016) Glacial legacies on interglacial vegetation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in Asia. Nat Commun 7:11967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Heslop Harrison JW, Blackburn KB (1946) The occurrence of a nut of Trapa natans L. in the Outer Hebrides, with some account of the peat bogs adjoining the loch in which the discovery was made. New Phytol 45:124–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Hesselman H (1916) Yttrande med anledning av L. von Post’s föredrag om skogsträdpollen i sydsvenska torfmosselagerfölder. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 38:390–392Google Scholar
  329. Hesselman H (1919a) Iakttagelser över skogsträdspollens spridningsförmåga. Meddelanden från Statens Skogsförsöksanstalt 16:27–60Google Scholar
  330. Hesselman H (1919b) Om pollenregn på hafvet och fjärrtransport af barrträdspollen. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 41:89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Hicks S (1974) A method of using modern pollen rain values to provide a time-scale for pollen diagrams from peat deposits. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 49:21–33Google Scholar
  332. Hicks S (1999) The relationship between climate and annual pollen deposition at northern tree-lines. Chemosphere Glob Chang Sci 1:403–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Hicks S (2001) The use of annual arboreal pollen deposition values for delimiting tree-lines in the landscape and exploring models of pollen dispersal. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 117:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Hicks S (2006) When no pollen does not mean no trees. Veget Hist Archaeobot 15:253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Hicks S, Hyvärinen H (1999) Pollen influx values measured in different sedimentary environments and their palaeoecological implications. Grana 38:228–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Higuera PE, Peters ME, Brubaker LB, Gavin DG (2007) Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal records with a simulation model. Quat Sci Rev 26:1790–1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Holmsen G (1919) Litt om grangrænsen i Fæmundstrakten. Tidsskrift for Skogbruk 3–4:39–48Google Scholar
  338. Holmsen G (1920a) Naar indvandret granskogen til Kristianiatraken. Tidsskrift for Skogbruk 7–8:1–6Google Scholar
  339. Holmsen G (1920b) Resultat af en pollenundersøkelse in kallktuf. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 5:1–4Google Scholar
  340. Holst NO (1909) Postglaciala tidsbestämningar. Sver Geol Unders Series C 2:3–74Google Scholar
  341. Hooghiemstra H (1984) Vegetational and climatic history of the High Plain of Bogotá, Colombia: a continuous record of the last 3.5 million years. Diss Bot 79:1–368Google Scholar
  342. Hu FS, Hampe A, Petit RJ (2009) Paleoecology meets genetics: deciphering past vegetational dynamics. Front Ecol Environ 7:371–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Huckerby E, Oldfield F (1976) The Quaternary vegetational history of the French Pays Basque, II: plant macrofossils and additional pollen-analytical data. New Phytol 77:499–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Hultberg T, Gaillard M-J, Grundmann B, Lindbladh M (2015) Reconstruction of past landscape openness using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) applied on three local pollen sites in a southern Swedish biodiversity hotspot. Veget Hist Archaeobot 24:253–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Huntley B, Birks HJB (1983) An atlas of past and present pollen maps for Europe: 0–13000 years ago. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  346. Huntley B, Webb T (eds) (1988) Vegetation history. Handbook of vegetation science, vol 7. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  347. Hyvärinen H (1975) Absolute and relative pollen diagrams from northernmost Fennoscandia. Fennia 142:1–23Google Scholar
  348. Hyvärinen H (1976) Flandrian pollen deposition rates and tree-line history in northernmost Fennoscandia. Boreas 5:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Iversen J (1934) Moorgeologische Untersuchungen auf Grönland. Dansk Geol Foren 8:341–358Google Scholar
  350. Iversen J (1936) Sekundäres Pollen als Fehlerquelle. Danm Geol Unders IV 2:1–24Google Scholar
  351. Iversen J (1941) Land occupation in Denmark’s stone age. Danm Geol Unders II 66:1–68Google Scholar
  352. Iversen J (1942) En pollenanalytisk tidsfæstelse af ferskvandslagene ved Norre Lyngby. Dansk Geol Foren 10:130–151Google Scholar
  353. Iversen J (1944) Viscum, Hedera and Ilex as climate indicators. A contribution to the study of the post-glacial temperature climate. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 66:463–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Iversen J (1945) Conditions of life for the large herbivorous mammals in the late-glacial period. In: Degerbøl M, Iversen J (eds) The bison in Denmark. Danm Geol Unders II 73. pp 49–57Google Scholar
  355. Iversen J (1947) Discussion in Nordiskt kvartågeologiskt möte den 5–9 november 1945. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 69:205–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Iversen J (1949) The influence of prehistoric man on vegetation. Danm Geol Unders IV 3:1–25Google Scholar
  357. Iversen J (1952–1953) Origin of the flora of western Greenland in the light of pollen analysis. Oikos 4:85–103Google Scholar
  358. Iversen J (1953) Radiocarbon dating of the Alleröd period. Science 118:9–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Iversen J (1954) The Late-glacial flora of Denmark and its relation to climate and soil. Danm Geol Unders II 80:87–119Google Scholar
  360. Iversen J (1956) Forest clearance in the Stone Age. Sci Am 194:36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Iversen J (1958a) The bearing of glacial and interglacial epochs on the formation and extinction of plant taxa. Systematics of today. Uppsala Universiteit Årsskrift 6:210–215Google Scholar
  362. Iversen J (1958b) Pollenanalytischer Nachweis des Reliktencharakters eines jütischen Linden-Mischwaldes. Veröff Geobot Inst Rübel Zür 33:137–144Google Scholar
  363. Iversen J (1960) Problems of the early post-glacial forest development in Denmark. Danm Geol Unders IV 4:1–32Google Scholar
  364. Iversen J (1964) Retrogressive vegetational succession in the post-glacial. J Ecol 52(Suppl):59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Iversen J (1967) Naturens udvikling siden sidste Istid. Danmarks Nat 1:345–445Google Scholar
  366. Iversen J (1969) Retrogressive development of a forest ecosystem demonstrated by pollen diagrams from fossil mor. Oikos 12:35–49Google Scholar
  367. Iversen J (1973) The development of Denmark’s nature since the last glacial. Danm Geol Unders V 7-C:1–126 (English translation of Iversen 1967)Google Scholar
  368. Iversen J, Troels-Smith J (1950) Pollenmorfologiske definitions og typer. Danm Geol Unders IV 3:1–54Google Scholar
  369. Jackson ST (1989) Postglacial vegetational changes along an elevational gradient in the Adirondack Mountains (New York). A study of plant macrofossils. Biological Survey/Museum Bulletin 465. The New York State Museum, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Jackson ST (2006) Forest genetics in space and time. New Phytol 171:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Jackson ST (2012) Representation of flora and vegetation in Quaternary fossil assemblages: known and unknown knowns and unknowns. Quat Sci Rev 49:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Jackson ST, Blois JL (2015) Community ecology in a changing environment: perspectives from the Quaternary. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:4915-4921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Jackson ST, Booth RK (2013) Validation of pollen studies. In: Elias SA, Mock CJ (eds) Encyclopedia of Quaternary science, vol 3, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 725–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Jackson ST, Booth RK, Reeves K, Andersen JJ, Minckley TA, Jones RA (2014) Inferring local to regional changes in forest composition from Holocene macrofossils and pollen of a small lake in central Upper Michigan. Quat Sci Rev 98:60–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Jackson ST, Lyford ME (1999) Pollen dispersal models in Quaternary plant ecology: assumptions, parameters, and prescriptions. Bot Rev 65:39–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Jackson ST, Overpeck JT (2000) Responses of plant populations and communities to environmental changes of the late Quaternary. Paleobiology 26(Suppl 4):194–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Jackson ST, Whitehead DR (1991) Holocene vegetation patterns in the Adirondack Mountains. Ecology 72:641–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Jackson ST, Williams JW (2004) Modern analogs in Quaternary paleoecology: here today, gone yesterday, gone tomorrow? Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 32:495–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Jacobson GL (1979) The palaeoecology of white pine (Pinus strobus) in Minnesota. J Ecol 67:697–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Jacobson GL (1988) Ancient permanent plots: sampling in paleovegetational studies. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Jacobson GL, Bradshaw RHW (1981) The selection of sites for paleovegetational studies. Quat Res 16:80–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Jacomet S (2013) Uses in environmental archaeology. In: Elias SA, Mock CJ (eds) Encyclopedia of Quaternary science, vol 3, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 699–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Janssen CR (1966) Recent pollen spectra from the deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests of northeastern Minnesota: a study in pollen dispersal. Ecology 47:804–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Janssen CR (1967a) A comparison between the recent regional pollen rain and the subrecent vegetation in four major vegetation types in Minnesota (USA). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 2:331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Janssen CR (1967b) A post-glacial pollen diagram from a small Typha swamp in northwestern Minnesota, interpreted from pollen indicators and surface samples. Ecol Monogr 37:145–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Janssen CR (1973) Local and regional pollen deposition. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 31–42Google Scholar
  387. Janssen CR (1981) On the reconstruction of past vegetation by pollen analysis: a review. In: Proceedings of IVth international palynological conference, Lucknow (1976–1977) 3, pp 163–172Google Scholar
  388. Janssen CR (1984) Modern pollen assemblages and vegetation in the Myrtle Lake Peatland, Minnesota. Ecol Monogr 54:213–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Jeffers ES, Bonsall MB, Brooks SJ, Willis KJ (2011a) Abrupt environmental changes drive shifts in tree–grass interaction outcomes. J Ecol 99:1063–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Jeffers ES, Bonsall MB, Froyd CA, Brooks SJ, Willis KJ (2014) The relative importance of biotic and abiotic processes for structuring plant communities through time. J Ecol 103:459–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Jeffers ES, Bonsall MB, Watson JE, Willis KJ (2012) Climate change impacts on ecosystem functioning: evidence from an Empetrum heathland. New Phytol 193:150–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Jeffers ES, Bonsall MB, Willis KJ (2011b) Stability in ecosystem functioning across a climatic threshold and contrasting forest regimes. PLoS One 6:e16134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Jessen K (1920) Moseundersøgelser i det nordøstlige Sjælland. Danm Geol Unders II 34:1–268Google Scholar
  394. Jessen K, Andersen ST, Farrington A (1959) The interglacial deposit near Gort, Co. Galway, Ireland. Proc R Irish Acad B 60:3–77Google Scholar
  395. Jessen K, Milthers V (1928) Stratigraphical and paleontological studies of interglacial fresh-water deposits in Jutland and northwest Germany. Danm Geol Unders II 48:1–379Google Scholar
  396. Jessen K, Rasmussen R (1922) Et profil gennem en Tørvemose på Færøerne. Danm Geol Unders IV 1:1–32Google Scholar
  397. Jonsell B (2007) Svensk botanisk forskning under 1900-talet. Svensk Bot Tidskr 101:19–54Google Scholar
  398. Jørgensen PM (2009) Knut Fægri i historisk perspektiv på 100-årsdagen. Blyttia 67:15–22Google Scholar
  399. Jowsey PC (1966) An improved peat sampler. New Phytol 65:245–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Juggins S (2007) C2 Software for ecological and palaeoecological data analysis and visualisation. User guide version 1.5. University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-TyneGoogle Scholar
  401. Juggins S (2015) rioja: analysis of Quaternary science data, version 0.9-9.
  402. Kabailiene MV (1966) On the distribution of pollen in lakes. Palynology in geological research in the Baltic Soviet Republics. Vilnius, pp 113–119Google Scholar
  403. Kabailiene MV (1969) On formation of pollen spectra and restoration of vegetation. Ministry of Geology of the USSR, Institute of Geology Transactions II, VilniusGoogle Scholar
  404. Kabailiene MV (1985) Restoration of Holocene forest history in Lithuania by net-like method. Ecol Mediterr 11:45Google Scholar
  405. Kristiansen K (2002) The birth of ecological archaeology in Denmark: history and research environments 1850–2000. In: Fischer A, Kristiansen K (eds) The neolithisation of Denmark: 150 years of debate. Collis, Sheffield, pp 11–31Google Scholar
  406. Krog H (1954) Pollen analytical investigation of the C14-dated Alleröd-section from Ruds-Vedby. Danm Geol Unders II 80:120–139Google Scholar
  407. Krzywinski K (1977) Different pollen deposition mechanisms in forest: a simple model. Grana 16:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Kuhn T (1970) The structure of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  409. Kuneš P, Odgaard BV, Gaillard M-J (2011) Soil phosphorus as a control of productivity and openness in temperate interglacial forest ecosystems. J Biogeogr 38:2150–2164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Lagerås P (2000) Burial rituals inferred from palynological evidence: results from a late Neolithic stone cist in southern Sweden. Veget Hist Archaeobot 9:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. Lagerås P (2007) The ecology of expansion and abandonment. Medieval and post-medieval land-use and settlement dynamics in a landscape perspective. National Heritage Board, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  412. Lagerås P (ed) (2016) Environment, society and the Black Death. Oxbow Books, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  413. Lagerheim G (1902) Metoder för pollenundersökning. Bot Not 1902:75–78Google Scholar
  414. Lang G (1952) Zur späteiszeitlichen Vegetations- und Florengeschichte Südwestdeutschlands. Flora 139:243–294Google Scholar
  415. Lang G (1994) Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  416. Last WM, Smol JP (eds) (2001a) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Basin analysis, coring, and chronological techniques. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 1. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  417. Last WM, Smol JP (eds) (2001b) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Physical and geochemical methods. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 2. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  418. Leng MJ (ed) (2006) Isotopes in palaeoenvironmental research. Developments in paleoenvironmental research. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  419. Lewis IF, Cocke EC (1929) Pollen analysis of Dismal Swamp peat. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 45:37–56Google Scholar
  420. Liepelt S, Cheddadi R, de Beaulieu J-L, Fady B, Gömöry D, Hussendörfer E, Konnert M, Litt T, Longauer R, Terhürne-Berson R, Ziegenhagen B (2009) Postglacial range expansion and its genetic imprints in Abies alba (Mill.)—a synthesis from palaeobotanic and genetic data. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 153:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Livingstone DA (1955) A lightweight piston sampler for lake deposits. Ecology 36:137–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Livingstone DA (1968) Some interstadial and postglacial pollen diagrams from eastern Canada. Ecol Monogr 38:87–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Lotter AF (1991) Absolute dating of the late-glacial period in Switzerland using annually laminated sediments. Quat Res 35:321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. Lotter AF (1999) Late-glacial and Holocene vegetation history and dynamics as shown by pollen and plant macrofossil analyses in annually laminated sediments from Soppensee, central Switzerland. Veget Hist Archaeobot 8:165–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Lotter AF, Ammann B, Hajdas I, Sturm M, van Leeuwen JFN (1995) Faulenseemoos revisited: new results from an old site. In: Robertson A-M, Hackens T, Hicks S, Risberg J, Åkerlund A (eds) Landscapes and life. Studies in honour of Urve Miller. PACT 50. Council of Europe, Rixensart, Belgium, pp 133–144Google Scholar
  426. Lotter AF, Birks HJB (2003a) Holocene sediments of Sägistalsee, a small lake at the present-day tree-line in the Swiss Alps. J Paleolimnol 30:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Lotter AF, Birks HJB (2003b) The Holocene palaeolimnology of Sägistalsee and its environmental history—a synthesis. J Paleolimnol 30:333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. Lotter AF, Kienast F (1990) Validation of a forest succession model by means of annually laminated sediments. Geol Survey Finl Spec Pap 14:25–31Google Scholar
  429. Lotter AF, Renberg I, Hansson H, Stöckli R, Sturm M (1997) A remote controlled freeze corer for sampling unconsolidated surface sediments. Aquat Sci 59:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Lundqvist G (1928) Studier i Ölands myrmarker. Sver Geol Unders Series C 353:1–183Google Scholar
  431. Lundqvist G (1951) Lennart von Post 16.6 1884–11.1 1951. Svensk Geografisk Årsbok 1951:96–106Google Scholar
  432. Lundqvist J (1996) Von Post, Ernst Jakob Lennart. Svensk Biografisktlexikon 29:480–487Google Scholar
  433. Lynch EA (1998) Origin of a park-forest vegetation mosaic in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Ecology 79:1320–1338Google Scholar
  434. MacDonald GM (1993a) Fossil pollen analysis and the reconstruction of plant invasions. Adv Ecol Res 24:67–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. MacDonald GM (1993b) Methodological falsification and the interpretation of paleoecological records—the cause of the early Holocene birch decline in western Canada. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 79:83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. MacDonald GM (2001) Conifer stomata. In: Smol JP, Birks HJB, Last WM (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Terrestrial, algal, and siliceous indicators. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 2. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 32–47Google Scholar
  437. Magri D, Di Rita F, Aranbarri J, Fletcher WJ, González-Sampériz P (2017) Quaternary disappearance of tree taxa from southern Europe: timing and trends. Quat Sci Rev 163:23–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Magri D, Vendramin GG, Comps B, Dupanloup I, Geburek T, Gömöry D, Latałowa M, Litt T, Paule L, Roure JM, Tantau I, van der Knaap WO, Petit RJ, de Beaulieu J-L (2006) A new scenario for the Quaternary history of European beech populations: palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequences. New Phytol 171:199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Maher LJ (1972) Absolute pollen diagrams of Redrock Lake, Boulder County, Colorado. Quat Res 2:531–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Maher LJ (1981a) Statistics for microfossil concentration measurements employing samples spiked with marker grains. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 32:153–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Maher LJ (1981b) The confidence limit is a necessary statistic for relative and absolute pollen data. In: Proceedings IVth international palynological conference, Lucknow (1976–1977) 3, pp 152–162Google Scholar
  442. Maher LJ, Heiri O, Lotter AF (2012) Assessment of uncertainties associated with palaeolimnological laboratory methods and microfossil analysis. In: Birks HJB, Lotter AF, Juggins S, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Data handling and numerical techniques. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 5. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 143–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Malmström C (1943) Henrik Hesselman. Kungliga Lantbruksakademiens Tidskrift 4:3–7Google Scholar
  444. Malmström C (1944) Henrik Hesselman 28/1 1874–11/7 1943. Norrlands Skogsvårdsförbunds Tidskrift 1:1–17Google Scholar
  445. Mangerud J, Andersen ST, Berglund BE, Donner JJ (1974) Quaternary stratigraphy of Norden, a proposal for terminology and classification. Boreas 3:109–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Manten AA (1967) Lennart von Post and the foundation of modern palynology. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 1:11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Manten AA (1969) Bibliography of palaeopalynology 1836–2966. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 8:1–572Google Scholar
  448. Mariani M, Connor SE, Theuerkauf M, Kuneš P, Fletcher M-S (2016) Testing quantitative pollen dispersal models in animal-pollinated vegetation mosaics: an example from temperate Tasmania, Australia. Quat Sci Rev 154:214–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Markgraf V (2016) First pollen record in South America. Commentary: Die Zeichenschrift der Pollenstatistik. Front Earth Sci 4:100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. Marquer L, Gaillard M-J, Sugita S et al (2014) Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter. Quat Sci Rev 90:199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Marshall JEA (2005) Arthur Raistrick: Britain’s premier palynologist. In: Bowden AJ, Burek CV, Wilding R (eds) History of palaeobotany: selected essays. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 241, London, pp 161–179Google Scholar
  452. Matthias I, Giesecke T (2014) Insights into pollen source area, transport and deposition from modern pollen accumulation rates in lake sediments. Quat Sci Rev 87:12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Matthias I, Nielsen AB, Giesecke T (2012) Evaluating the effect of flowering age and forest structure on pollen productivity estimates. Veget Hist Archaeobot 12:471–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Mazier F, Gaillard M-J, Kuneš P, Sugita S, Trondman A-K, Broström A (2012) Testing the effect of site selection and parameter setting on REVEALS-model estimates of plant abundance using the Czech Quaternary Palynological Database. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 187:38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. McAndrews JH (1966) Postglacial history of prairie, savanna, and forest in northwestern Minnesota. Mem Torrey Bot Club 22:1–72Google Scholar
  456. McAndrews JH (1988) Human disturbance of North American forests and grasslands: the fossil pollen record. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 673–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. McAndrews JH (2006) Gunnar Erdtman’s last pollen diagram: location, location, location. Can Assoc Palynol Newslett 29:8–9Google Scholar
  458. McAndrews JH, Berti AA, Norris G (1973) Key to the Quaternary pollen and spores of the Great Lakes Region. Life science miscellaneous publication. Royal Ontario Museum, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  459. Mehl IK, Hjelle KL (2016) From deciduous forest to open landscape: application of new approaches to help understand cultural landscape development in western Norway. Veget Hist Archaeobot 25:153–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. Melles M, Brigham-Grette J, Minyuk PS et al (2012) 2.8 million years of arctic climate change from Lake El’Gygytgyn, NE Russia. Science 337:315–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. Miller PA, Giesecke T, Hickler T, Bradshaw RHW, Smith B, Seppä H, Valdes PJ, Sykes MT (2008) Exploring climatic and biotic controls on Holocene vegetation change in Fennoscandia. J Ecol 96:247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Mitchell FJG (1988) The vegetational history of the Killarney oakwoods, SW Ireland: evidence from fine spatial resolution pollen analysis. J Ecol 76:415–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Mitchell FJG (2005) How open were European primeval forests? Hypothesis testing using palaeoecological data. J Ecol 93:168–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Mitchell FJG (2011) Exploring vegetation in the fourth dimension. Trends Ecol Evol 26:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Mitchell FJG, Cole E (1998) Reconstruction of long-term successional dynamics of temperate woodland in Białowieża Forest, Poland. J Ecol 86:1042–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Moe D (1970) Post-glacial immigration of Picea abies into Fennoscandia. Bot Not 123:61–66Google Scholar
  467. Moore PD, Webb JA (1978) An illustrated guide to pollen analysis. Hodder & Stoughton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  468. Moore PD, Webb JA, Collinson ME (1991) Pollen analysis, 2nd edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  469. Mortensen MF, Birks HH, Christensen C, Holm J, Noe-Nygaard N, Odgaard BV, Olsen J, Rasmussen KL (2011) Lateglacial vegetation development in Denmark—new evidence based on macrofossils and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland. Quat Sci Rev 30:2534–2550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Mrotzek A, Couwenberg J, Theuerkauf M, Joosten H (2016) MARCO POLO—a new and simple tool for pollen-based stand-scale vegetation reconstruction. Holocene 27:321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Myrbo A (2004) Pollen spike preparations and spiking pollen samples. Limnological Research Center Core Facility, University of Minnesota, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  472. Nesje A (1992) A piston corer for lacustrine and marine sediments. Arct Alp Res 24:257–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Nielsen AB (2003) Pollen based quantitative estimation of land cover. PhD thesis, Copenhagen University, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  474. Nielsen AB (2004) Modelling pollen sedimentation in Danish lakes at 1800: an attempt to validate the POLLSCAPE model. J Biogeogr 31:1693–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Nielsen AB, Giesecke T, Theuerkauf M et al (2012) Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions. Quat Sci Rev 47:131–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Nielsen AB, Møller PF, Giesecke T, Stavngaard B, Fontana SL, Bradshaw RHW (2010) The effect of climate conditions on inter-annual flowering variability monitored by pollen traps below the canopy in Draved Forest, Denmark. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:309–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Nielsen AB, Odgaard BV (2004) The use of historical analogues for interpreting fossil pollen records. Veget Hist Archaeobot 13:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Nilsson T (1935) Die pollenanalytische Zonengliederung der spät- und postglazialen Bildungen Schonens. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 57:385–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Nilsson T (1948) On the application of the Scanian post-glacial zone system to Danish pollen-diagrams. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Skrifter 5:1–53Google Scholar
  480. Nilsson T (1964) Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Studien im Ageröds Mosse, Schonen. Lunds Universitets Årsskrift 59:1–34Google Scholar
  481. Nipkov F (1927) Über das Verhalten der Skelette planktischen Kieselalgen im geschichteten Tiefenschlamm des Zurich- und Baldeggersees. Schweiz Z Hydrol 4:11–120Google Scholar
  482. Nordlund C (2014) Peat bogs as geological archives: Lennart von Post et al. and the development of quantitative pollen analysis during World War I. Earth Sci Hist 33:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Nordlund C (2017) Four points on Lennart von Post and the invention of “pollen statistics”. Veget Hist Archaeobot. doi: Google Scholar
  484. O’Sullivan PE (1983) Annually laminated lake sediments and the study of Quaternary environmental change—a review. Quat Sci Rev 1:245–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. O’Sullivan PE, Oldfield F, Battarbee RW (1973) Preliminary studies of Lough Neagh sediments. I: stratigraphy, chronology and pollen analysis. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 267–278Google Scholar
  486. Odgaard BV, Rasmussen P (2000) Origin and temporal development of macro-scale vegetation patterns in the cultural landscape of Denmark. J Ecol 88:733–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Oldfield F, Huckerby E (1979) The Quaternary palaeobotany of the French Pays Basque: a summary. Pollen Spores 21:337–360Google Scholar
  488. Overballe-Petersen MV, Nielsen AB, Bradshaw RHW (2013) Quantitative vegetation reconstruction from pollen analysis and historical inventory data around a Danish small forest hollow. J Veget Sci 24:755–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Paciorek CJ, McLachlan JS (2009) Mapping ancient forests: Bayesian inference for spatio-temporal trends in forest composition using the fossil pollen proxy record. J Am Stat Assoc 104:608–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Pardoe HS, Giesecke T, van der Knaap WO et al (2010) Comparing pollen spectra from modified Tauber traps and moss samples: examples from a selection of woodlands across Europe. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. Parshall T (2002) Late Holocene stand-scale invasion by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) at its western range limit. Ecology 83:1386–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Parsons RW, Gordon AD, Prentice IC (1983) Statistical uncertainty in forest composition estimates obtained from fossil pollen spectra via the R-value model. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 40:177–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Parsons RW, Prentice IC (1981) Statistical approaches to R-values and the pollen-vegetation relationship. Rev Palaeobot Palynoly 32:127–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Parsons RW, Prentice IC, Saarnisto M (1980) Statistical studies on pollen representation in Finnish lake sediments in relation to forest inventory data. Ann Bot Fenn 17:379–393Google Scholar
  495. Paus A (1988) Late Weichselian vegetation, climate, and floral migration at Sandvikvatn, North Rogaland, southwestern Norway. Boreas 17:113–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. Peck RM (1973) Pollen budget studies in a small Yorkshire catchment. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 43–60Google Scholar
  497. Peglar SM (1993) The mid-Holocene Ulmus decline at Diss Mere, Norfolk, UK: a year-by-year pollen stratigraphy from annual laminations. Holocene 3:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Peglar SM, Birks HJB (1993) The mid-Holocene Ulmus fall at Diss Mere, south-east England—disease and human impact? Veget Hist Archaeobot 2:61–68Google Scholar
  499. Pennington W (1973) Absolute pollen frequencies in the sediments of lakes of different morphometry. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 79–104Google Scholar
  500. Pennington W, Bonny AP (1970) Absolute pollen diagram from the British Late-glacial. Nature 226:871–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. Perry GLW, Wainwright J, Etherington TR, Wilmshurst JM (2016) Experimental simulation: using generative modelling and palaeoecological data to understand human-environmental interactions. Front Ecol Evol 4:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Petit RJ, Brewer S, Bordács S et al (2002) Identification of refugia and post-glacial colonisation routes of European white oaks based on chloroplast DNA and fossil pollen evidence. For Ecol Manag 156:49–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. Pidek IA, Svitavská-Svobodová H, van der Knaap P et al (2010) Variation in annual pollen accumulation rates of Fagus along a N–S transect in Europe based on pollen traps. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. Pilcher JR, Smith AG, Pearson GW, Crowder AS (1971) Land clearance in the Irish Neolithic: new evidence and interpretation. Science 172:560–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. Prentice IC (1983) Postglacial climatic change: vegetation dynamics and the pollen record. Prog Phys Geogr 7:273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. Prentice IC (1985) Pollen representation, source area, and basin size—toward a unified theory of pollen analysis. Quat Res 23:76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. Prentice IC (1986) Forest-composition calibration of pollen data. In: Berglund BE (ed) Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp 799–816Google Scholar
  508. Prentice IC (1988a) Paleoecology and plant-population dynamics. Trends Ecol Evol 3:343–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Prentice IC (1988b) Records of vegetation in time and space: the principles of pollen analysis. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 17–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. Prentice IC, Berglund BE, Olsson T (1987) Quantitative forest composition sensing characteristics of pollen samples from Swedish lakes. Boreas 16:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. Prentice IC, Parsons RW (1983) Maximum-likelihood linear calibration of pollen spectra in terms of forest composition. Biometrics 39:1051–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. Prentice IC, Webb T (1986) Pollen percentages, tree abundances and the Fagerlind effect. J Quat Sci 1:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. Punt W, Blackmore S, Clarke GCS et al (1976–2009) The north-west European pollen flora, vol 1–9. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  514. Raistrick A, Blackburn KB (1932) Analysis of some Lake District peats. North Western Nat 7:94–97Google Scholar
  515. Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M (1983) Isopollen maps for Poland: 0–11,000 yearsbp. New Phytol 94:133–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M, Goslar T, Madeyska T, Starkel L (eds) (1998) Lake Gościąż, Central Poland: a monographic study. W Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, KrakówGoogle Scholar
  517. Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M, Latałowa M, Wasylikowa K, Tobolski K, Madeyska E, Wright HE, Turner C (eds) (2004) Late glacial and Holocene history of vegetation in Poland based on isopollen maps. W Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, KrakówGoogle Scholar
  518. Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M, van Geel B, Goslar T, Kuc T (1992) The record of the Late Glacial/Holocene transition in the varved sediments of Lake Gosciaz, Central Poland. Sver Geol Unders Series C 81:257–268Google Scholar
  519. Rasmussen P (2005) Mid- to late-Holocene land-use change and lake development at Dallund Sø, Denmark: vegetation and land-use history inferred from pollen data. Holocene 15:1116–1129Google Scholar
  520. Rasmussen P, Bradshaw EG (2005) Mid- to late-Holocene land-use change and lake development at Dallund Sø, Denmark: study aims, natural and cultural setting, chronology and soil erosion history. Holocene 15:1105–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Renberg I (1981) Improved methods for sampling, photographing and varve-counting of varved lake sediments. Boreas 10:255–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Renberg I (1991) The HON-Kajak sediment corer. J Paleolimnol 6:167–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Renberg I, Hansson H (2008) The HTH sediment corer. J Paleolimnol 40:655–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Renberg I, Hansson H (2010) Freeze corer No. 3 for lake sediments. J Paleolimnol 44:731–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. Richards K (2017) Report on the conference to mark the Centenary (1916–2016) of pollen analysis and the legacy of Lennart von Post, Stockholm, November 24–25th 2016. AASP Palynol Soc Newsl 50:21–24Google Scholar
  526. Ritchie JC (1977) The modern and late Quaternary vegetation of the Campbell-Dolomite uplands, near Inuvik, NWT Canada. Ecol Monogr 42:499–534Google Scholar
  527. Ritchie JC (1984) Past and present vegetation of the far northwest of Canada. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  528. Ritchie JC (1991) Paleoecology: status and prospect. In: Shane LCK, Cushing EJ (eds) Quaternary landscapes. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp 113–128Google Scholar
  529. Ritchie JC (1995) Current trends in studies of long-term plant community dynamics. New Phytol 130:469–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. Rowley JR, Rowley J (1956) Vertical migration of spherical and aspherical pollen in a Sphagnum bog. Proc Minn Acad Sci 24:29–30Google Scholar
  531. Rudolph K (1930) Grundzüge der nacheiszeitlichen Waldgeschichte Mitteleuropas. Beih Bot Centbl 47:111–176Google Scholar
  532. Rudolph K (1932) Die natürliche Holzartenverbreitung in Deutschland nach den bisherigen Ergebnissen der Pollenanalyse. Forstarchiv 1/2:1–8Google Scholar
  533. Rudolph K, Firbas F, Sigmond H (1928) Das Koppenplanmoor im Riesengebirge. Lotos 76:173–222Google Scholar
  534. Ruosch M, Spahni R, Joos F, Henne PD, van der Knaap WO, Tinner W (2016) Past and present evolution of Abies alba forests in Europe—comparison of a dynamic vegetation model with palaeo data and observations. Glob Chang Biol 22:727–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. Saarnisto M (1986) Annually laminated lake sediments. In: Berglund BE (ed) Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp 343–370Google Scholar
  536. Salmi M (1962) Investigations on the distribution of pollen in an extensive raised bog. Comptes Rendus de la Société Géologique de Finlande 34:159–193Google Scholar
  537. Sangster AG, Dale HM (1961) A preliminary study of differential pollen grain preservation. Can J Bot 39:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. Sangster AG, Dale HM (1964) Pollen grain preservation of underrepresented species in fossil spectra. Can J Bot 42:427–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. Sears PB (1930) A record of postglacial climate in North America. Ohio J Sci 32:63–66Google Scholar
  540. Sears PB (1932) Post-glacial climate in eastern North America. Ecology 13:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Sears PB (ed) (1943–1954) Pollen analysis circular and pollen and spore circular, vol 1–18. Oberlin, OhioGoogle Scholar
  542. Sears PB (1948) Forest sequence and climatic change in northeastern North America since early Wisconsin time. Ecology 29:326–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. Sears PB (1952) Palynology in southern North America. I: archaeological horizons in the basin of Mexico. Geol Soc Am Bull 63:241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. Selling OH (1946) Studies in Hawaiian pollen statistics part I: the spores of the Hawaiian pteridophytes. Bernice P Bishop Museum special publication 37. Bernice P Bishop Museum, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  545. Selling OH (1947) Studies in Hawaiian pollen statistics part II: the pollens of the Hawaiian Phanerogams. Bernice P Bishop Museum special publication 38. Bernice P Bishop Museum, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  546. Selling OH (1948) Studies in Hawaiian pollen statistics part III: on the late Quaternary history of the Hawaiian vegetation. Bernice P Bishop Museum special publication 39. Bernice P Bishop Museum, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  547. Selling OH (1951) Lennart von Post 16/6 188–11/1 1951. Svensk Bot Tidskr 45:275–296Google Scholar
  548. Seppä H (1996) Post-glacial dynamics of vegetation and tree-lines in the far north of Fennoscandia. Fennia 174:1–96Google Scholar
  549. Seppä H, Alenius T, Bradshaw RHW, Giesecke T, Heikkilä M, Muukkonen P (2009a) Invasion of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the rise of the boreal ecosystem in Fennoscandia. J Ecol 97:629–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. Seppä H, Alenius T, Muukkonen P, Giesecke T, Miller PA, Ojala AEK (2009b) Calibrated pollen accumulation rates as a basis for quantitative tree biomass reconstructions. Holocene 19:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Seppä H, Bennett KD (2003) Quaternary pollen analysis: recent progress in palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology. Prog Phys Geogr 27:548–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. Seppä H, Hicks S (2006) Integration of modern and past pollen accumulation rate (PAR) records across the arctic tree-line: a method for more precise vegetation reconstructions. Quat Sci Rev 25:1501–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Sernander R (1890) Om förekomsten af subfossila stubbar på svenska insjöars bottem. Bot Not 1890:10–20Google Scholar
  554. Sernander R (1894) Studier öfver den Gotländska vegetationens utvecklingshistoria. Akademiska afhandling, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  555. Shane LCK (2010) Paul B. Sears’ contribution to the development of paleocology. Ohio J Sci 109:76–87Google Scholar
  556. Shuman B, Newby P, Huang YS, Webb T (2004) Evidence for the close climatic control of New England vegetation history. Ecology 85:1297–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  557. Sköld E, Lagerås P, Berglund BE (2010) Temporal cultural landscape dynamics in a marginal upland area: agricultural expansions and contractions inferred from palynological evidence at Yttra Berg, southern Sweden. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:121–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. Smit A, Wijmstra TA (1970) Application of transmission electron microscope analysis to the reconstruction of former vegetation. Acta Bot Neerl 19:867–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. Smith AG, Pilcher JR (1973) Radiocarbon dates and vegetational history of the British Isles. New Phytol 72:903–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Smith AG, Willis EH (1961–1962) Radiocarbon dating of the Fallahogy landnam phase. Ulster J Archaeol 24–25:16–24Google Scholar
  561. Smol JP (2008) Pollution of lakes and rivers: a paleoenvironmental perspective, 2nd edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  562. Smol JP, Birks HJB, Last WM (eds) (2001a) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Terrestrial, algal, and siliceous indicators. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 3. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  563. Smol JP, Birks HJB, Last WM (eds) (2001b) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Zoological indicators. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 4. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  564. Stockmarr J (1971) Tablets with spores used in absolute pollen analyses. Pollen Spores 13:615–621Google Scholar
  565. Sugita S (1993) A model of pollen source area for an entire lake surface. Quat Res 39:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. Sugita S (1994) Pollen representation of vegetation in Quaternary sediments: theory and method in patchy vegetation. J Ecol 82:881–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. Sugita S (1998) Modelling pollen representation of vegetation. Paläoklimaforschung 27:1–16Google Scholar
  568. Sugita S (2007a) Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation. I: pollen from large sites REVEALS regional vegetation composition. Holocene 17:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. Sugita S (2007b) Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation. II: all you need is LOVE. Holocene 17:243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Sugita S, Gaillard M-J, Broström A (1999) Landscape openness and pollen records: a simulation approach. Holocene 9:409–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. Sugita S, MacDonald GM, Larsen CPS (1997) Reconstruction of fire disturbance and forest succession from fossil pollen in lake sediments: potential and limitations. In: Clark JS, Cachier H, Goldammer JG, Stocks BJ (eds) Sediment records of biomass burning and global change. Springer, Berlin, pp 387–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. Swain AM (1973) A history of fire and vegetation in northeastern Minnesota as recorded in lake sediments. Quat Res 3:383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. Sweeney CA (2004) A key for the identification of stomata of the native conifers of Scandinavia. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 128:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. Szafer W (1935) The significance of isopollen lines for the investigation of the geographic distribution of trees in the post-glacial period. Bull de l’Acad Pol des Sci B 3:235–239Google Scholar
  575. Tallis JH (1991) Plant community history. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  576. Tauber H (1965) Differential pollen dispersion and the interpretation of pollen diagrams. Danm Geol Unders II 89:1–69Google Scholar
  577. Tauber H (1967) Investigations of the mode of pollen transfer in forested areas. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 3:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. Tauber H (1974) A static non-overload pollen collector. New Phytol 73:359–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. Tauber H (1977) Investigations of aerial pollen transport in a forested region. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 32:1–121Google Scholar
  580. Ter Braak CJF, Juggins S (1993) Weighted averaging partial least-squares regression (WA-PLS)—an improved method for reconstructing environmental variables from species assemblages. Hydrobiologia 269/270:485–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. Ter Braak CJF, Juggins S, Birks HJB, van der Voet H (1993) Weighted averaging partial least squares regression (WA-PLS): definition and comparison with other methods for species-environment calibration. In: Patil GP, Rao CR (eds) Multivariate environmental statistics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 529–560Google Scholar
  582. Theuerkauf M, Couwenberg J (2017) The extended downscaling approach: a new R-tool for pollen-based reconstruction of vegetation patterns. Holocene 27:1252–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Theuerkauf M, Couwenberg J, Kuparinen A, Liebscher V (2016) A matter of dispersal: REVEALSinR introduces state-of-the-art dispersal models to quantitative vegetation reconstruction. Veget Hist Archaeobot 25:541–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. Theuerkauf M, Dräger N, Kienel U, Kuparinen A, Brauer A (2015) Effects of changes in land management practices on pollen productivity of open vegetation during the last century derived from varved lake sediments. Holocene 25:733–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  585. Theuerkauf M, Joosten H (2009) Substrate dependency of lateglacial forests in north-east Germany: untangling vegetation patterns, ecological amplitudes and pollen dispersal in the past by downscaling regional pollen. J Biogeogr 36:942–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. Theuerkauf M, Kuparinen A, Joosten H (2012) Pollen productivity estimates strongly depend on assumed pollen dispersal. Holocene 23:14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. Theuerkauf M, Bos JAA, Jahns S, Janke W, Kuparinen A, Stebich M, Joosten H (2014) Corylus expansion and persistent openness in the early Holocene vegetation of northern central Europe. Quat Sci Rev 90:183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  588. Tinner W, Colombaroli D, Heiri O et al (2013) The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming. Ecol Monogr 83:419–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  589. Tinner W, Hu FS (2003) Size parameters, size-class distribution and area-number relationship of microscopic charcoal: relevance for fire reconstruction. Holocene 13:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. Tollefsrud MM, Kissling R, Gugerli F et al. (2008) Genetic consequences of glacial survival and postglacial colonization in Norway spruce: combined analysis of mitochondrial DNA and fossil pollen. Mol Ecol 17:4134–4150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. Torres VT (2006) Pliocene-Pleistocene evolution of flora, vegetation and climate: a palynological and sedimentological study of a 586-m core from the Bogotá Basin, Colombia. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  592. Toulmin S (1972) Human understanding: the collective use and evolution of concepts. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  593. Trautmann W (1952) Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen über die Fichtenwälder des Bayerischen Waldes. Planta 41:83–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. Trautmann W (1953) Zur Unterscheidung fossiler Spaltöffnungen der mitteleuropäischen Coniferen. Flora 140:523–553Google Scholar
  595. Traverse A (2007) Paleopalynology, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  596. Troels-Smith J (1955) Karakterisering af løse jordarter. Danm Geol Unders IV 3:1–73Google Scholar
  597. Trondman A-K, Gaillard M-J, Mazier F et al (2015) Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene regional vegetation cover (plant-functional types and land-cover types) in Europe suitable for climate modelling. Glob Chang Biol 21:676–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  598. Tsukada M (1983) Late-Quaternary spruce decline and rise in Japan and Sakhalin. Bot Mag Tokyo 96:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. Turner J, Peglar SM (1988) Temporally-precise studies of vegetation history. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 753–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. Tzedakis PC, Hooghiemstra H, Pälike H (2006) The last 1.35 million years at Tenaghi Philippon: revised chronostratigraphy and long-term vegetation trends. Quat Sci Rev 25:3416–3430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. Usinger H (1977) Bölling-Interstadial und Laacher Bimstuff in einem neuen Spätglazial-Profil aus dem Vallensgård Mose/Bornholm. Mit Pollen grössenstatischer Trennung der Birken. Danm Geol Unders Årbog 1977:5–29Google Scholar
  602. Valentine DH (1970) Kathleen Bever Blackburn. Watsonia 8:69–70Google Scholar
  603. Van Geel B (1978) A palaeoecological study of Holocene peat bog sections in Germany and the Netherlands. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 25:1–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  604. Van Geel B (1986) Application of fungal and algal remains and other microfossils in palynological analyses. In: Berglund BE (ed) Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp 497–505Google Scholar
  605. Van Geel B (2001) Non-pollen palynomorphs. In: Smol JP, Birks HJB, Last WM (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Tterrestrial, algal, and siliceous indicators. Developments in paleoenvironmental research, vol 3. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  606. Van der Wiel AM, Wijmstra TA (1987a) Palynology of the 112.8–197.8 M interval of the core Tenaghi Philippon III, Middle Pleistocene of Macedonia. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 52:89–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. Van der Wiel AM, Wijmstra TA (1987b) Palynology of the lower part (78–120 M) of the core Tenaghi Philippon II, Middle Pleistocene of Macedonia, Greece. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 52:73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. Van der Hammen T, Wijmstra TA, Zagwijn WH (1971) The floral record of the Late Cenozoic of Europe. In: Turekian KK (ed) The Late Cenozoic glacial ages. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 391–424Google Scholar
  609. Van der Knaap WO, van Leeuwen JFN, Svitavská-Svobodová H et al (2010) Annual pollen traps reveal the complexity of climatic control on pollen productivity in Europe and the Caucasus. Veget Hist Archaeobot 19:285–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  610. Veloz SD, Williams JW, Blois JL, He F, Otto-Bliesner B, Liu Z (2012) No-analog climates and shifting realized niches during the late Quaternary: implications for 21st-century predictions by species distribution models. Glob Chang Biol 18:1698–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  611. Von Post L (1903a) En profil genom högsta Litorinavallen på södra Gotland. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 25:257–258Google Scholar
  612. Von Post L (1903b) En profil genom högsta Litorinavallen på södra Gotland. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 25:339–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  613. Von Post L (1909) Stratigraphische Studien über Torfmoore in Närke. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 31:629–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  614. Von Post L (1913) Über stratigraphische zweiglierderung schwedisher Hochmoore. Sver Geol Unders Series C 6:1–52Google Scholar
  615. Von Post L (1916a) Einige Südschwedischen Quellmoore. Bull Geol Inst Uppsala Univ 15:219–278Google Scholar
  616. Von Post L (1916b) Mötet den 2 november 1916. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 38:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  617. Von Post L (1918) Skogsträdpollen i sydsvenska torvmosselagerföljder. Förhandlingar ved de 16. Skandinavia Naturforskermøte 1916:433–465Google Scholar
  618. Von Post L (1924) Ur de sydsvenska skogarnas regionala historia under post-arktisk tid. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 46:83–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. Von Post L (1926a) Einige Aufgaben der regionalen Moorforschung. Sver Geol Unders Series C 337:1–41Google Scholar
  620. Von Post L (1926b) Medel och mål i skånsk torvmosseforskning. Sydsvenska Geografiska Sällskapets Årsbok 1926:76–114Google Scholar
  621. Von Post L (1929) Die Zeichenschrift der Pollenstatistik. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 51:543–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. Von Post L (1930) Die postarktische Geschichte der europäischen Wälder nach den vorliegenden Pollendiagrammen. Meddelanden från Stockholms Högskolas Geologiska Institut 16:1–27Google Scholar
  623. Von Post L (1933a) A Gothiglacial transgression of the sea in South Sweden. Geogr Ann 15:225–254Google Scholar
  624. Von Post L (1933b) Den svenska skogen efter istiden. Studentföreningen Verdandis Småskrifter 357:193–217Google Scholar
  625. Von Post L (1944) Pollenanalytiska perspektiv på Jordens klimathistoria. Ymer 64:79–113Google Scholar
  626. Von Post L (1946) The prospect for pollen analysis in the study of the Earth’s climatic history. New Phytol 45:193–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  627. Von Post L (1947) Hallands marina fornstränder. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 69:293–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  628. Von Post L (1950) Kritik. Knut Fægri och Johs. Iversen: textbook of modern pollen analysis. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 72:363–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  629. Von Post L (1967) Forest tree pollen in South Swedish peat bog deposits. Pollen Spores 9:375–401 (Translated by M. B. Davis and K. Fægri with introduction by K. Fægri and J. Iversen)Google Scholar
  630. Von Post L, Granlund E (1926) Södra Sveriges Torvillgångar, vol I. Sver Geol Unders Series C 335:1–127Google Scholar
  631. Von Post L, Sernander R (1910) Pflanzen-physiognomische Studien auf Torfmooren in Närke. In: Proceedings of the international geological congress excursion A7. Stockholm, p 48Google Scholar
  632. Von Post L, von Walterstorff A, Lindquist S (1925) Bronsaldersmanteln fram Gerumsberget i Västergötland. Kungliga Vitterhets, Historie och Antikvietetsakademiens Monografiserie 15:1–39Google Scholar
  633. Walker D (1982a) The development of resilience in burned vegetation. In: Newman EI (ed) Plant community as a working mechanism. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 27–43Google Scholar
  634. Walker D (1982b) Vegetation’s fourth dimension. New Phytol 90:419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  635. Walker D (1990) Purpose and method in Quaternary palynology. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 64:13–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  636. Wardle DA, Walker LR, Bardgett RD (2004) Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences. Science 305:509–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  637. Wasylikowa K (1964) Roslinmósć i klimat Późnego w cŕodkowej polsce na podstawie badán w Witowie koło Leçzucy [Vegetation and climate of the late-glacial in central Poland based on investigations made at Witów near Leçzyca]. Bulletin Peryglacjalny 13:262–417Google Scholar
  638. Wasylikowa K, Starkel L, Niedziałkowska E, Skiba S, Stworzewicz E (1985) Environmental changes in the Vistula Valley at Pleszów caused by Neolithic man. Przeglad Archeologiczny 33:19–55Google Scholar
  639. Watts WA (1970) The full-glacial vegetation of northwestern Georgia. Ecology 51:17–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  640. Watts WA (1973) Rates of change and stability in vegetation in the perspective of long periods of time. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 195–206Google Scholar
  641. Watts WA (1977) The Late Devensian vegetation of Ireland. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 280:273–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  642. Watts WA (1978) Plant macrofossils and Quaternary palaeoecology. In: Walker D, Guppy JC (eds) Biology and Quaternary environments. Australian Academy of Sciences, Canberra, pp 53–67Google Scholar
  643. Watts WA (1979) Late Quaternary vegetation of central Appalachia and the New Jersey coastal plain. Ecol Monogr 49:427–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  644. Watts WA (1988) Europe. In: Huntley B, Webb T (eds) Vegetation history. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 155–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  645. Watts WA (2008) William Watts, Provost, Trinity College Dublin. A memoir. Lilliput/Hinds, DublinGoogle Scholar
  646. Watts AS, Fraser GK (1933) Tree roots and the field layer. J Ecol 21:404–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  647. Watts WA, Winter TC (1966) Plant macrofossils from Kirchner Marsh, Minnesota—a paleoecological study. Geol Soc Am Bull 77:1339–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  648. Watts WA, Wright HE (1966) Late-Wisconsin pollen and seed analysis from the Nebraska Sandhills. Ecology 47:202–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  649. Webb T, McAndrews JH (1976) Corresponding patterns of contemporary pollen and vegetation in central North America. Geol Soc Am Mem 145:267–299Google Scholar
  650. Webb T, Richard PH, Mott RJ (1983) A mapped history of Holocene vegetation in southern Quebec. Syllogeus 49:273–336Google Scholar
  651. Weber CA (1893) Über die diluviale Flora von Fahrenkrug in Holstein. Beibl Bot Jb 18:1–13Google Scholar
  652. Welten M (1944) Pollenanalytische, stratigraphische und geochronologische Untersuchungen aus dem Faulenseemoos bei Spiez. Veröff Geobot Inst Rübel, Zürich 21:1–201Google Scholar
  653. Wesenberg-Lund C (1901) Studier over søkalk, bønnemalm og søgytje i danske indsøer. Meddel Dansk Geol Foren 2:1–180Google Scholar
  654. West RG (1957) Interglacial deposits at Bobbitshole, Ipswich. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 241:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  655. West RG (1964) Inter-relations of ecology and Quaternary palaeobotany. J Ecol 52(Suppl):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  656. West RG (1980) Pleistocene forest history in East Anglia. New Phytol 85:571–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  657. Wick L, van Leeuwen JFN, van der Knaap WO, Lotter AF (2003) Holocene vegetation development in the catchment of Sägistalsee (1935 m asl), a small lake in the Swiss Alps. J Paleolimnol 30:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  658. Wijkander K (2017) Naturen inför rätta. Skandalen som skakade Vetenskapssverige. Fri Tanke Förlag, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  659. Wijmstra TA (1969) Palynology of the first 30 metres of a 120 m deep section in northern Greece. Acta Bot Neerl 18:511–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  660. Wijmstra TA, Smit A (1976) Palynology of the middle part (30–78 metres) of the 120 m deep section in northern Greece (Macedonia). Acta Bot Neerl 25:297–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  661. Williams JW, Blois JL, Shuman BN (2011) Extrinsic and intrinsic forcing of abrupt ecological change: case studies from the late Quaternary. J Ecol 99:664–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  662. Williams JW, Jackson ST (2007) Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. Front Ecol Environ 5:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  663. Williams JW, Shuman BN, Webb T, Bartlein PJ, Leduc PL (2004) Late-Quaternary vegetation dynamics in North America: scaling from taxa to biomes. Ecol Monogr 74:309–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  664. Willis KJ, Gillson L, Brncic TM (2004a) How “virgin” is virgin rainforest? Science 304:402–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  665. Willis KJ, Gillson L, Brncic TM (2004b) Virgin rainforests and conservation—Response. Science 305:944–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  666. Witte H (1905) Stratiotes aloides L. funnen i Sveriges postglaciala aflagringar. Geol Fören i Stockh Förhandl 27:432–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  667. Woodhead TW (1923) Botanical survey and ecology in Yorkshire. Naturalist 794:97–128Google Scholar
  668. Woodhead TW, Erdtman G (1926) Remains in the peat of the southern Pennines. Naturalist 835:245–253Google Scholar
  669. Wright HE (1967) A square-rod piston sampler for lake sediments. J Sediment Petrol 37:975–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  670. Wright HE (1974) Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management. Science 186:487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  671. Wright HE (1980) Cores of soft lake sediments. Boreas 9:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  672. Wright HE (1991) Coring tips. J Paleolimnol 6:37–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  673. Wright HE (2010) High points in paleolimnological studies as viewed by a convert. J Paleolimnol 44:497–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  674. Wright HE, Mann DH, Glaser PH (1984) Piston corers for peat and lake sediments. Ecology 65:657–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  675. Xu Q, Zhang S, Gaillard M-J, Li M, Cao XY, Tian F, Li F (2016) Studies of modern pollen assemblages for pollen dispersal-deposition-preservation process understanding and for pollen-based reconstructions of past vegetation, climate, and human impact: a review based on case studies in China. Quat Sci Rev 149:151–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  676. Yu Z (1997) Late Quaternary paleoecology of Thuja and Juniperus (Cupressaceae) at Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada: pollen, stomata and macrofossils. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 96:241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  677. Yu Z (2003) Late Quaternary dynamics of tundra and forest vegetation in the southern Niagara Escarpment, Canada. New Phytol 157:365–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  678. Zolitschka B, Francus P, Ojala AEK, Schimmelmann A (2015) Varves in lake sediments—a review. Quat Sci Rev 117:1–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Bjerknes Centre for Climate ResearchUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Environmental Change Research CentreUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Geology, Quaternary ResearchLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations