Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 539–549 | Cite as

First finds of Prunus domestica L. in Italy from the Phoenician and Punic periods (6th–2nd centuries bc)

  • Mariano Ucchesu
  • Marco Sarigu
  • Carla Del Vais
  • Ignazio Sanna
  • Guy d’Hallewin
  • Oscar Grillo
  • Gianluigi Bacchetta
Original Article


During the archaeological excavations in the Phoenician and Punic settlement of Santa Giusta (Oristano, Sardinia, Italy), dating back to the 6th–2nd centuries bc, several Prunus fruitstones (endocarps) inside amphorae were recovered. The exceptional state of preservation of the waterlogged remains allowed morphometric measurements to be done by image analysis and statistical comparisons made with modern cultivated and wild Prunus samples collected in Sardinia. Digital images of modern and archaeological Prunus fruitstones were acquired with a flatbed scanner and analysed by applying image analysis techniques to measure 26 morphometric features. By applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis, a morphometric comparison was made between the archaeological fruitstones of Prunus and the modern ones collected in Sardinia. These analyses allowed identification of 53 archaeological fruitstones as P. spinosa and 11 as P. domestica. Moreover, the archaeological samples of P. spinosa showed morphometric similarities in 92.5% of the cases with the modern P. spinosa samples currently growing near the Phoenician and Punic site. Likewise, the archaeological fruitstones identified as P. domestica showed similarities with the modern variety of P. domestica called Sanguigna di Bosa which is currently cultivated near the village of Bosa. Currently, these findings represent the first evidence of P. domestica in Italy during the Phoenician and Punic periods.


Archaeobotany Image analysis Morphometric features Prunus Sardinia 



The authors wish to thank all the staff of ‘Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per la città metropolitana di Cagliari e le province di Oristano, Medio Campidano, Carbonia-Iglesias e Ogliastra’ for assistance and for allowing us the use of archaeological material. We wish to acknowledge Giuseppe Rosas, Liberato Fara and all the staff of the CNR-ISPA (Nuraxinieddu, Oristano, Sardinia) for technical assistance during the sample collection.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Banca del Germoplasma della Sardegna (BG-SAR), Hortus Botanicus Karalitanus (HBK)Università degli Studi di CagliariCagliariItaly
  2. 2.Centro Conservazione Biodiversità (CCB), Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente (DISVA)Università degli Studi di CagliariCagliariItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Storia, Beni Culturali e TerritorioUniversità degli Studi di CagliariCagliariItaly
  4. 4.Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per la città metropolitana di Cagliari e le province di Oristano, Medio Campidano, Carbonia-Iglesias e OgliastraCagliariItaly
  5. 5.Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheIstituto di Scienze delle Produzioni AlimentariLi Punti SassariItaly

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