Advertisement

Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 487–501 | Cite as

Vegetation history of the western Rif mountains (NW Morocco): origin, late-Holocene dynamics and human impact

  • Serge D. MullerEmail author
  • Laila Rhazi
  • Benjamin Andrieux
  • Marion Bottollier-Curtet
  • Séverine Fauquette
  • Er-Riyahi Saber
  • Nabil Rifai
  • Amina Daoud-Bouattour
Original Article

Abstract

Unlike southern Spain, northern Morocco has been little investigated for palaeoecological purposes. Consequently, the origin and history of the Rifan vegetation is largely unknown, as well as the past role of human activities. A review of the Plio-Pleistocene fossil data available from North Africa clearly reveals the ancient origin of much of the present-day flora and vegetation structures of the region. A well-dated pollen record covering the last 5,000 years, obtained from a fen, is compared to previous regional pollen data in order to understand the late-Holocene vegetation dynamics and the influence of anthropogenic disturbances. Modern pollen spectra have allowed the calibration of pollen diversity and evenness as indicators of tree-cover density. The results obtained show the long-term persistence of regional forests until the onset of Arab Sharifian dynasties in the 16th century, with a surprising lack of human impact during the late Neolithic, and little impact during Roman colonisation. The increasing density of deciduous forests recorded from 3,800 to 1,900 cal bp, concomitant with the expansion of cedar in the Middle Atlas, could reveal the onset of widespread cooler and moister climatic conditions. The weak and late human impact in the Rifan mountains explains, at least in part, their high diversity and the conservation of their forest ecosystems. Anthropogenic activities however have led to severe modification of the understorey structure of these forests during the four last centuries, and to the worrying on-going deforestation that presently threatens the survival of this invaluable biological heritage.

Keywords

Late Cenozoic North Africa Palynology Anthropisation Climate Mediterranean forest 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Lucie Chabal for charcoal identification, Laurent Callegarin and Patrice Cressier for helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript, Mandak Bohumil for information about recently found tetraploid alder populations in southern Spain, and Alex Chepstow-Lusty for editing. We also address our grateful thanks to the two anonymous reviewers and the copy editor, whose comments were greatly appreciated. The present work is part of the project Medyna (FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES). This publication is the contribution ISE-M no 2014-157.

Supplementary material

334_2014_504_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12 kb)
334_2014_504_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (888 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 888 kb)

References

  1. Abramoff MD, Magalhaes PJ, Ram SJ (2004) Image Processing with ImageJ. Biophotonics Int 11:36–42Google Scholar
  2. Ajbilou R, Marañón T, Arroyo J (2006) Ecological and biogeographical analyses of Mediterranean forests of northern Morocco. Acta Oecol 29:104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba-Sánchez F, López-Sáez JA, Benito-de Pando B, Linares JC, Nieto-Lugilde D, López-Merino L (2010) Past and present potential distribution of the Iberian Abies species: a phytogeographic approach using fossil pollen data and species distribution models. Div Distrib 16:214–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arambourg C, Arènes J, Depape G (1953) Contribution à l’étude des flores fossiles quaternaires de l’Afrique du Nord. Arch Mus Hist Nat Paris 7:1–85Google Scholar
  5. Arroyo J (1997) Plant diversity in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar: a multilevel approach. Lagascalia 19:393–404Google Scholar
  6. Bachiri Taoufiq N, Bahroun N, Suc J-P, Méon H, Elaouad Z, Benbouziane A (2001) Environnement, végétation et climat du Messinien au Maroc. Paleontol Evol 32–33:127–138Google Scholar
  7. Ballouche A, Marinval P (2003) Données palynologiques et carpologiques sur la domestication des plantes et l’agriculture dans le Néolithique ancien du Maroc septentrional (site de Kaf That El-Ghar). Rev Archéométrie 27:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaudouin C, Suc J-P, Cambon G, Touzani A, Giresse P, Pont D, Aloïsi J-C, Marsset T, Cochonat P, Duzer D, Ferrier J (2005) Present-day rhythmic deposition in the Grand Rhone prodelta (NW Mediterranean) according to high-resolution pollen analyses. J Coast Res 21:292–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beaudouin C, Suc J-P, Escarguel G, Arnaud M, Charmasson S (2007) The significance of pollen signal in present-day marine terrigenous sediments: the example of the Gulf of Lions (western Mediterranean Sea). Geobios 40:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benabid A (2000) Flore et écosystèmes du Maroc. Evaluation et préservation de la biodiversité. Ibis Press, ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. Benslama M, Andrieu-Ponel V, Guiter F, Reille M, De Beaulieu J-L, Migliore J, Djamali M (2010) Nouvelles contributions à l’histoire tardiglaciaire et holocène de la végétation en Algérie: analyses polliniques de deux profils sédimentaires du complexe humide d’El-Kala. CR Biol 333:744–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben Tiba B, Reille M (1982) Recherches pollenanalytiques dans les montagnes de Kroumirie (Tunisie septentrionale): premiers résultats. Ecol Mediterr 8:75–86Google Scholar
  13. Berglund BE, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M (1986) Pollen analysis and pollen diagrams. In: Berglund BE (ed) Handbook of holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp 455–484Google Scholar
  14. Beucher F (1967a) Quelques éléments de flore pliocène au Sahara nord-occidental. CR Acad Sci (Paris) 265:1,117–1,120Google Scholar
  15. Beucher F (1967b) Une flore d’âge ougartien (seconde partie du Quaternaire moyen) dans les Monts d’Ougarta (Sahara Nord-Occidental). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 2:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Birks HJB, Birks HH (1980) Quaternary Palaeoecology. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Callegarin L (2008) La côte maurétanienne et ses relations avec le littoral de la Bétique (fin du IIIe siècle a.C.-Ier siècle p.C.). Mainake 30:289–328Google Scholar
  18. Calleja JA, Benito Garzón M, Sainz Ollero H (2009) A Quaternary perspective on the conservation prospects of the tertiary relict tree Prunus lusitanica L. J Biogeogr 36:487–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carrión JS, Fernández S, Jiménez-Moreno G, Fauquette S, Gil-Romera G, González-Samériz P, Finlayson C (2010) The historical origins of aridity and vegetation degradation in southeastern Spain. J Arid Environ 74:731–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheddadi R, Lamb H, Guiot J, Van der Kaars S (1998) Holocene climatic change in Morocco: a quantitative reconstruction from pollen data. Clim Dyn 14:883–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheddadi R, Fady B, François L, Hajar L, Suc J-P, Huang K, Demarteau M, Vendramin GG, Ortu E (2009) Putative glacial refugia of Cedrus atlantica from quaternary pollen records and modern genetic diversity. J Biogeogr 36:1,361–1,371Google Scholar
  22. Dahlgren R, Lassen P (1972) Studies in the Flora of Northern Morocco. I. Some poor fen communities and notes on a number of northern and Atlantic plant species. Bot Not 125:439–464Google Scholar
  23. Damblon F (1991) Contribution pollenanalytique à l’histoire des forêts de chêne liège au Maroc: La subéraie de Krimda. In: Ballouche A, Maley J (eds) Proceedings of the 1st symposium of African palynology. Palaeoecology of Africa and the surrounding islands 22, Brookfield, Rotterdam, pp 171–183Google Scholar
  24. David F, Barbero M (2001) Les érables dans l’étage subalpin: une longue histoire. CR Acad Sci III 324:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis MB, Brubaker LB, Webb T III (1973) Calibration of absolute pollen influx. In: Birks HJB, Wet RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 9–25Google Scholar
  26. Deil U, Frosch B, Jackle H, Mhamdi A, Achhal A (2009) A geobotanical analysis of forest patches on sacred sites in Northern Morocco. Ber Reinhold-Tüxen Ges 21:174–195Google Scholar
  27. Ducellier L (1925) Contribution à la flore fossile de l’Afrique du Nord. Bull Soc Hist Nat Afr Nord 13:178–186Google Scholar
  28. Fægri K, Iversen J (1989) In: Fægri K, Kaland PE, Krzywinski K (eds) Textbook of pollen analysis, 4th edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  29. Feddi N, Fauquette S, Suc J-P (2011) Histoire plio-pléistocène des écosystèmes végétaux de Méditerranée sud-occidentale: apport de l’analyse pollinique de deux sondages en Mer d’Alboran. Geobios 44:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fennane M, Ibn Tattou M (2005) Flore vasculaire du Maroc, inventaire et chorologie, vol 1. Travaux de l’Institut Scientifique, Série Botanique 37. Institut Scientifique, RabatGoogle Scholar
  31. Fennane M, Ibn Tattou M, Mathez J, Ouyahya A, El Oualidi J (1999) Flore pratique du Maroc. Manuel de détermination des plantes vasculaires, vol 1. Travaux de l’Institut Scientifique, Série Botanique 36. Institut Scientifique, RabatGoogle Scholar
  32. Fennane M, Ibn Tattou M, Ouyahya A, El Oualidi J (2007) Flore pratique du Maroc. Manuel de détermination des plantes vasculaires, vol 2. Travaux de l’Institut Scientifique, Série Botanique 38. Institut Scientifique, RabatGoogle Scholar
  33. Gartet J, Ballais J-L, Gartet A, Fontugne M (2001) Polémique autour de la datation de la terrasse rharbienne. Apport de la très basse terrasse de l’Ouerrha, Rif (Maroc). In: Barrandon J-L, Guibert P, Michel V (eds) 21e rencontres internationales d’archéologie et d’histoire d’Antibes. APDCA, Antibes, pp 361–368Google Scholar
  34. Goeury C (1997) GPalWin: gestion, traitement et représentation des données de la paléoécologie. In: Actes du XVe symposium de l’APLF. APLF, Lyon, p 31Google Scholar
  35. Grau-Almero E (2011) Charcoal analysis from Lixus (Larache, Morocco). In: Badal E, Carrion Y, Grau E, Macias M, Ntinou M (eds) The charcoal as cultural and biological heritage: 5th international meeting of charcoal analysis. Saguntum Extra 11, València, pp 107–108Google Scholar
  36. Guerrera F, Martin-Algarra A, Perrone V (1993) Late Oligocene–Miocene syn/late-orogenic successions in western and central Mediterranean chains from the Betic cordilleras to the southern Apennines. Terra Nova 5:525–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Paleontol Electron 4:1–9Google Scholar
  38. Hampe A (2005) Fecundity limits in Frangula alnus (Rhamnaceae) relict populations at the species’ southern range margin. Oecologia 143:377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hampe A, Arroyo J (2002) Recruitment and regeneration in populations of an endangered South Iberian tertiary relict tree. Biol Conserv 107:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heiri O, Lotter AF, Lemcke G (2001) Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results. J Paleolimnol 25:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ibn Tattou M, Fennane M (2008) Flore vasculaire du Maroc, inventaire et chorologie, vol 2. Travaux de l’Institut Scientifique, Série Botanique 39. Institut Scientifique, RabatGoogle Scholar
  42. Jaramillo-Correa JP, Grivet D, Terrab A, Kurt Y, De-Lucas AI, Wahid N, Vendramin GG, González-Martínez SC (2010) The Strait of Gibraltar as a major biogeographic barrier in Mediterranean conifers: a comparative phylogeographic survey. Mol Ecol 19:5,452–5,468Google Scholar
  43. Jean-Léon l’Africain (1956) Description de l’Afrique, nouvelle édition traduite de l’italien par A. Épaulard, Adrien-Maisonneuve, ParisGoogle Scholar
  44. Lamb HF, van der Kaars S (1995) Vegetational response to Holocene climatic change: pollen and palaeolimnological data from the Middle Atlas, Morocco. Holocene 5:400–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lamb HF, Eicher U, Switsur VR (1989) An 18,000-year record of vegetation, lake-level and climatic change from Tigalmamine, Middle Atlas, Morocco. J Biogeogr 16:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lamb HF, Damblon F, Maxted RW (1991) Human impact on the vegetation of the Middle Atlas, Morocco, during the last 5,000 years. J Biogeogr 18:519–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lamb HF, Roberts N, Leng MJ et al (1999) Lake evolution in a semi-arid montane environment: response to catchment change and hydroclimatic variation. J Paleolimnol 21:325–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lepais O, Muller SD, Ben Saad-Limam S et al (2013) High genetic diversity and distinctiveness of rear-edge climate relicts maintained by ancient tetraploidisation for Alnus glutinosa Gaertn. Plos One 8:e75029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Linares JC (2011) Biogeography and evolution of Abies (Pinaceae) in the Mediterranean basin: the roles of long-term climatic change and glacial refugia. J Biogeogr 38:619–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marañón T, Ajbilou R, Ojeda F, Arroyo J (1999) Biodiversity of woody species in oak woodlands of southern Spain and northern Morocco. For Ecol Manag 115:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Médail F, Quézel P (1997) Hot-spots analysis for conservation of plant biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin. Ann Mo Bot Gard 84:112–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mejías JA, Arroyo J, Marañón T (2007) Ecology and biogeography of plant communities associated with the post Plio–Pleistocene relict Rhododendron ponticum subsp. baeticum in southern Spain. J Biogeogr 34:456–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Menendez Amor J, Florschütz F (1962) Un aspect de la végétation en Espagne méridionale durant la dernière glaciation et l’Holocène. Geol Mijnbouw 41:131–134Google Scholar
  54. Menendez Amor J, Florschütz F (1964) Results of the preliminary palynological investigation of samples from a 50 m boring in southern Spain. Bol R Soc Esp Hist Nat (Geol) 62:251–255Google Scholar
  55. Moreno A, Pérez A, Frigola J et al (2012) The Medieval climate anomaly in the Iberian Peninsula reconstructed from marine and lake records. Quat Sci Rev 43:16–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Muller SD, Nakagawa T, De Beaulieu J-L, Court-Picon M, Fauquette S, Genries A (2006) Paléostructures de végétation à la limite supérieure des forêts, dans les Alpes françaises internes. CR Biol 329:502–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Muller SD, Nakagawa T, De Beaulieu J-L et al (2007) Postglacial migration of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the southwestern Alps. J Biogeogr 34:876–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muller SD, Rhazi L, Saber E-R et al (2011) Peat mosses (Sphagnum) and related plant communities of North Africa. II. The Tingitanean-Rifan range (northern Morocco). Nova Hedwigia 93:335–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Muller SD, Miramont C, Bruneton H et al (2012) A palaeoecological perspective for the conservation and restoration of wetland plant communities in the central French Alps, with particular emphasis on alder carr vegetation. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 171:124–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nakagawa T, De Beaulieu J-L, Kitagawa H (2000) Pollen-derived history of timber exploitation from the Roman period onwards in the Romanche valley, central French Alps. Veget Hist Archaeobot 9:85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ojeda F, Marañón T, Arroyo J (1996) Patterns of ecological, chorological and taxonomic diversity on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. J Veg Sci 7:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Park TK, Boum A (2005) Historical dictionary of Morocco. Scarecrow Press, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  63. Pons A, Quézel P (1958) Premières remarques sur l’étude palynologique d’un guano fossile du Hoggar. CR Acad Sci 244:2,290–2,292Google Scholar
  64. Ponsich M (1964) Exploitation agricole romaine de la région de Tanger. Bull Archéol Marocaine 5:235–252Google Scholar
  65. Puy A, Balbo AL, Virgili A, Kirchner H (2014) The evolution of Mediterranean wetlands in the first millennium ad: the case of Les Arenes floodplain (Tortosa, NE Spain). Geoderma 232–234:219–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Quézel P (2000) Réflexions sur l’évolution de la flore et de la végétation au Maghreb méditerranéen. Ibis Press, ParisGoogle Scholar
  67. Quézel P, Barbero M (1990) Les forêts méditerranéennes : problèmes posés par leur signification historique, écologique et leur conservation. Acta Bot Malacitana 15:145–178Google Scholar
  68. Quézel P, Martinez C (1958) Etude palynologique de deux diatomites du Borkou (Territoire du Tchad A.E.F.). Bull Soc Hist Nat Afr Nord 49:230–244Google Scholar
  69. Quézel P, Médail F (2003) Ecologie et biogéographie des forêts du bassin méditerranéen. Elsevier, ParisGoogle Scholar
  70. R Development Core Team (2005) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 31 Jan 2013
  71. Rebuffat R (1986) Recherches sur le bassin du Sebou (Maroc). CR Acad Inscr B-Lett 130:633–661Google Scholar
  72. Reille M (1977) Contribution pollenanalytique à l’histoire holocène de la végétation des montagnes du Rif (Maroc septentrional). Recherches françaises sur le Quaternaire (INQUA). Supplément au Bulletin AFEQ 50:53–76Google Scholar
  73. Reille M, Andrieu V, De Beaulieu J-L (1996) Les grands traits de l’histoire de la végétation des montagnes méditerranéennes occidentales. Écologie 27:153–169Google Scholar
  74. Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A et al (2013) IntCal13 and marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal bp. Radiocarbon 55:1,869–1,887Google Scholar
  75. Rhoujjati A, Cheddadi R, Taïeb M, Baali A, Ortu E (2010) Environmental changes over the past c. 29,000 years in the Middle Atlas (Morocco): a record from Lake Ifrah. J Arid Environ 74:737–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rodríguez-Ariza MO (1992) Human plant relationships during the Copper and Bronze Ages in the Baza and Guadix basins (Granada, Spain). Bull Soc Bot Fr 139:451–464Google Scholar
  77. Rodríguez-Sánchez F, Pérez-Barrales R, Ojeda F, Vargas P, Arroyo J (2008) The Strait of Gibraltar as a melting pot for plant biodiversity. Quat Sci Rev 27: 2,100–2,117Google Scholar
  78. Salamani M (1993) Premières données paléophytogéographiques du cèdre de l’Atlas (Cedrus atlantica) dans la région de grande Kabylie (NE Algérie). Palynosciences 2:147–155Google Scholar
  79. Sauvage C (1958) Intérêt biogéographique du Bou-Hachem (Rif occidental). Bull Soc Sci Nat Physiol Maroc 38:17–26Google Scholar
  80. Stambouli-Essassi S, Roche E, Bouzid S (2007) Evolution de la végétation et du climat dans le Nord-Ouest de la Tunisie au cours des 40 derniers millénaires. Geo Eco Trop 31:171–214Google Scholar
  81. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ (1993) Extended 14C database and revised CALIB radiocarbon calibration program. Radiocarbon 35:215–230Google Scholar
  82. Suc J-P, Fauquette S, Bessedik M et al (1999) Neogene vegetation changes in west European and west circum-Mediterranean areas. In: Agusti J, Rook L, Andrews P (eds) Hominid evolution and climatic change in Europe, vol 1., Climatic and environmental change in the Neogene of EuropeCambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 378–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Taiqui L (1997) La dégradation écologique au Rif marocain: nécessités d’une nouvelle approche. Mediterranea 16:5–17Google Scholar
  84. Taiqui L, Cantarino CM (1997) Eléments historiques d’analyse écologique des paysages montagneux du Rif Occidental (Maroc). Mediterranea 16:23–35Google Scholar
  85. Taleb MS, Fennane M (2011) Morocco. In: Radford EA, Catullo G, De Montmollin B (eds) Important plant areas of the south and east Mediterranean region, priority sites for conservation. IUCN, Gland, pp 22–26Google Scholar
  86. Tauber H (1965) Differential pollen dispersion and the interpretation of pollen diagrams. Danm Geol Unders Raekke 2:69Google Scholar
  87. Terrab A, Schönswetter P, Talavera S, Vela E, Stuessy TF (2008) Range-wide phylogeography of Juniperus thurifera L., a presumptive keystone species of western Mediterranean vegetation during cold stages of the Pleistocene. Mol Phylogenet Evol 48:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Thinon M, Ballouche A, Reille M (1996) Holocene vegetation of the central Saharan mountains: the end of a myth. Holocene 6:457–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Valdès B, Rejdali M, Achhal El Kadmiri A, Jury JL, Montserrat JM (eds) (2002) Checklist of vascular plants of N Morocco with identification keys, vol 2. Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas, MadridGoogle Scholar
  90. Van Campo E (1977) Une flore sporopollinique du gisement pliocène du lac Ichkeul (Tunisie). Suppl Bull AFEQ 50:77–80Google Scholar
  91. Van Campo ERC (1978) Paléoflores et paléoclimats néogènes au nord-est de la Tunisie. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  92. Van Campo M (1964) Quelques pollens pléistocènes nouveaux pour le Hoggar. CR Acad Sci (Paris) 258:1,297–1,299Google Scholar
  93. Van den Brink LM, Janssen CR (1985) The effect of Human activities during cultural phases on the development of montane vegetation in the Serra da Estrela, Portugal. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 44:193–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Walanus A, Nalepka D (1999) POLPAL. Program for counting pollen grains, diagrams plotting and numerical analysis. Acta Palaeobot Suppl 2:659–661Google Scholar
  95. Warny S (1999) Marine and continental environmental changes in the Gibraltar arc area during the late Neogene (8–2.7 Ma) linked to the evolution of global climate and to Atlantic Ocean–Mediterranean Sea relationships. A palynological contribution to the Mediterranean salinity crisis through dinoflagellate cysts and pollen analysis. PhD Thesis, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  96. Wildi W (1983) La chaîne tello-rifaine (Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie): structure stratigraphique et évolution du Trias au Miocène. Rev Géol Dyn Géogr Phys 24:201–297Google Scholar
  97. Zielhofer C, Linstädter J (2006) Short-term mid-Holocene climatic deterioration in the West Mediterranean region: climatic impact on Neolithic settlement pattern? Z Geomorphol NF Suppl 142:1–17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serge D. Muller
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laila Rhazi
    • 2
  • Benjamin Andrieux
    • 1
  • Marion Bottollier-Curtet
    • 3
  • Séverine Fauquette
    • 1
  • Er-Riyahi Saber
    • 4
  • Nabil Rifai
    • 5
    • 6
  • Amina Daoud-Bouattour
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Institut des Sciences de l’EvolutionUniversité Montpellier 2, CNRS, IRDMontpellier Cedex 05France
  2. 2.Laboratoire de botanique, mycologie et environnement, Faculté des Sciences de RabatUniversité Mohammed VRabatMorocco
  3. 3.Les Ecologistes de l’Euzière, Domaine de RestinclièresPrades-le-LezFrance
  4. 4.Département de Géographie, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences HumainesUniversité Moulay IsmailZitoune MeknèsMorocco
  5. 5.Direction Régionale des Eaux et Forêts et de la Lutte contre la Désertification du RifTétouanMorocco
  6. 6.Laboratoire d’Ecologie Aquatique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences Aïn ChockUniversité Hassan II CasablancaCasablancaMorocco
  7. 7.Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences de TunisUniversité de Tunis El ManarTunisTunisia
  8. 8.Faculté des Lettres, des Arts et des Humanités de Manouba, UR99/UR/02-04 BiCADEUniversité de la ManoubaManoubaTunisia

Personalised recommendations