Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 315–334 | Cite as

Early–Middle Holocene vegetation history, climate change and human activities at Lago Riane (Ligurian Apennines, NW Italy)

  • Nicholas P. Branch
Original Article


The radiocarbon-dated palaeoecological study of Lago Riane (Ligurian Apennines, NW Italy) presented here forms part of a wider investigation into the relationships between Holocene vegetation succession, climate change and human activities in the northern Apennines. The record of vegetation history from Lago Riane indicates that, since the end of the last glaciation, climate change and prehistoric human activities, combined with several local factors, have strongly influenced the pattern and timing of natural vegetation succession. The pollen record indicates an important change in vegetation cover at Lago Riane at ~8500–8200 cal. years b.p., coincident with a well-known period of rapid climate change. At ~6100 cal. years b.p., Fagus woodland colonised Lago Riane during a period of climate change and expansion of Late Neolithic human activities in the upland zone of Liguria. A marked decline in Abies woodland, and the expansion of Fagus woodland, at ~4700 cal. years b.p., coincided with further archaeological evidence for pastoralism in the mountains of Liguria during the Copper Age. At ~3900–3600 cal. years b.p. (Early to Middle Bronze Age transition), a temporary expansion of woodland at Lago Riane has been provisionally attributed to a decline in human pressure on the environment during a period of short-term climate change.


Holocene Vegetation history Climate change Human activities Fagus Abies 



A number of colleagues are thanked for their generous support: John Lowe, Roberto Maggi, Carlo Montanari, Mariangela Guido, Diego Moreno, Matt Canti, Jean-Luc Schwenninger, Rob Batchelor, Dan Young and Nathalie Marini. The Parco Naturale Regionale dell’Aveto (Liguria) are thanked for their kind permission to work at Lago Riane. I would also like to thank the two anonymous referees for their helpful comments on the text.

Supplementary material

334_2012_384_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (468 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Full pollen diagram from Lago Riane (pollen values expressed as a % of total land pollen) (PDF 468 kb)


  1. Alessio A, Allegri L, Bella F, Calderoni G, Cortesi C, Dai Pra G et al (1986) 14C dating, geochemical features, faunistic and pollen analyses of the uppermost 10 m cores from Valle di Castiglione (Roma, Italy). Geol Romana 25:287–308Google Scholar
  2. Aline P, Touzet M-C, Armengaud C, Ponge J-F (1997) Establishment of Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior in an old-growth beech forest. J Veg Sci 8:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alley RB, Mayewski PA, Sowers T, Stuiver M, Taylor KC, Clark PU (1997) Holocene climatic instability: a prominent, widespread event 8200 year ago. Geology 25:483–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ammann B, Lotter AF (1989) Late-glacial radiocarbon and palynostratigraphy on the Swiss plateau. Boreas 18:109–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariztegui D, Asioli A, Lowe JJ, Trincardi F, Vigliotti L, Tamburini F, Chondrogianni C, Accorsi CA, Bandini Mazzanti M, Mercuri AM, van der Kaars S, McKenzie JA, Oldfield F (2000) Palaeoclimate and the formation of sapropel S1: inferences from late quaternary lacustrine and marine sequences in the central Mediterranean region. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:215–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arobba D, Biagi P, Formicola V, Isetti E, Nisbet R (1987) Nuove osservazioni sull’Arma dell’Aquila (Finale Ligure—Savona). Atti della XXVI Riunione Scientifica dell’ IIPP: 541–551Google Scholar
  7. Barker G, Biagi P, Clark G, Maggi R, Nisbet R (1990) From hunting to herding in the Val Pennavaira (Liguria—Northern Italy). In: Biagi P (ed) The neolithisation of the Alpine region. Museo Civico Di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, pp 99–121Google Scholar
  8. Bellini C, Mariotti-Lippi M, Montanari C (2009) The Holocene landscape history of the NW Italian coasts. Holocene 19:1,161–1,172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bengtsson L, Enell M (1986) Chemical analysis. In: Berglund BE (ed) Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Wiley, Sussex, pp 423–454Google Scholar
  10. Berger J-F, Guilaine J (2009) The 8200 cal b.p. abrupt environmental change and the Neolithic transition: a Mediterranean perspective. Quat Int 200:31–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biagi P, Maggi R (1984) Aspects of the Mesolithic age in Liguria. Preistoria Alpina 19:159–168Google Scholar
  12. Biagi P, Nandris J (eds) (1994) Highland zone exploitation in southern Europe. Museo Civico Di Scienze Naturali, BresciaGoogle Scholar
  13. Biagi P, Maggi R, Nibet R (1987) Excavations at Arma dello Stefanin (Val Pennavaira—Albenga, northern Italy) 1982–1986. Mesolith Miscellany 8:10–11Google Scholar
  14. Biagi P, Cremaschi M, Nisbet R (1993) Soil exploitation and early agriculture in northern Italy. Holocene 3:164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Birks HJB, Gordon AD (1985) Numerical methods in quaternary pollen analysis. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Björkman JJ (1997) The role of human disturbance in the local late Holocene establishment of Fagus and Picea forests in Flahult, western Smaland, southern Sweden. Veget Hist Archaeobot 6:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blockley SPE, Blaauw M, Bronk Ramsey C, Van der Plicht J (2007) Building and testing age models for radiocarbon dates in Lateglacial and Early Holocene sediments. J Quat Sci 26:1,915–1,926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bond G, Showers W, Cheseby M, Lotti R, Almasi P, deMenocal P, Priore P, Cullen H, Hajdas I, Bonani G (1997) A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science 278:1,257–1,266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Braggio G, Guido MA, Montanari C (1991) Palaeovegetational evidence in the Upper Nure valley (Ligurian-Emilian Apennines, Northern Italy). Webbia 46:173–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Branch NP (2002) L’analisi palinologica per lo studio della vegetazione e della sua gestione. In: Campana N, Maggi R (eds) Archeologia in Valle Lagorara. Istituto Italiano Di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, pp 339–353Google Scholar
  21. Branch NP (2004) Late Würm Lateglacial and Holocene environmental history of the Ligurian Apennines, Italy. In: Balzaretti R, Pearce M, Watkins C (eds) Ligurian landscapes: studies on archaeology, geography and history. Accordia Research Institute, London, pp 7–69Google Scholar
  22. Branch NP, Canti MG, Clark P, Turney CSM (2005) Environmental archaeology. Theoretical and Practical Approaches, ArnoldGoogle Scholar
  23. Brayshaw D, Rambeau CMC, Smith SJ (2011) Changes in Mediterranean climate during the Holocene: insights from global and regional climate modelling. Holocene 21:15–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brewer S, François L, Cheddadi R, Laurent J-M, Favre E (2009) Compari-son of simulated and observed vegetation for the mid-Holocene in Europe. Clim Past Discuss 5:965–1,011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bronk Ramsey C (1995) Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: the oxcal program. Radiocarbon 37:425–430Google Scholar
  26. Bronk Ramsey C (2001) Development of the radiocarbon program oxcal. Radiocarbon 43:355–363Google Scholar
  27. Bronk Ramsey C (2007) Deposition models for chronological records. Quat Sci Rev 27:42–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cantu V (1977) The climate of Italy. In: Wallen CC (ed) World survey of climatology 6, climates of central and southern Europe. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 127–173Google Scholar
  29. Clark RL (1982) Point-count estimation of charcoal in pollen preparations and thin sections of sediments. Pollen Spores 24:523–535Google Scholar
  30. Clark JS (1988) Particle motion and the theory of charcoal analysis: source area, transport, deposition and sampling. Quat Res 30:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Colombaroli D, Marchetto A, Tinner W (2007) Long-term interactions between Mediterranean climate, vegetation and fire regime at Lago di Massaciuccoli (Tuscany, Italy). J Ecol 95:755–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Colombaroli D, Vannière B, Emmanuel C, Magny M, Tinner W (2008) Fire–vegetation interactions during the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition at Lago dell’Accesa, Tuscany, Italy. Holocene 18:679–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cremaschi M (1990) Pedogenesi Medio Olocenica ed uso dei suoli durante il Neolitico in Italia Settentrionale. In: Biagi P (ed) The Neolithisation of the Alpine region. Museo Civico Di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, pp 71–90Google Scholar
  34. Cruise GM (1990a) Holocene peat initiation in the Ligurian Apennines, northern Italy. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 63:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cruise GM (1990b) Pollen stratigraphy of two Holocene peat sites in the Ligurian Apennines, northern Italy. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 63:299–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cruise GM, Macphail RI, Linderholm J, Maggi R, Marshall PD (2009) Lago di Bargone, Liguria, N Italy: a reconstruction of Holocene environmental and land-use history. Holocene 19:987–1,003Google Scholar
  37. Cushing EJ (1967) Evidence for differential pollen preservation in late-quaternary sediments from Minnesota. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 4:87–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis BAS, Brewer S, Stevenson AC, Guiot J, Data Contributors (2003) The temperature of Europe during the Holocene reconstructed from pollen data. Quat Sci Rev 22:1,701–1,716Google Scholar
  39. Deacon J (1974) The location of refugia of Corylus avellana L during the Late Weichselian glaciation. New Phytol 73:1,055–1,063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Drescher-Schneider R (1994) Forest, forest clearance and open land during the time of the Roman Empire in northern Italy (the botanical record). In: Frenzel B (ed) Evaluation of land surfaces cleared from forests in the Mediterranean region during the time of the Roman Empire. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 45–58Google Scholar
  41. Drescher-Schneider R, De Beaulieu J-L, Magny M, Walter-Simonnet A-V, Bossuet G, Millet L, Brugiapaglia E, Drescher A (2007) Vegetation history, climate and human impact over the last 15,000 years at Lago dell’Accesa (Tuscany, Central Italy). Veget Hist Archaeobot 16:279–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Finsinger W, Tinner W (2005) Minimum count sums for charcoal-concentration estimates in pollen slides: accuracy and potential errors. Holocene 15:293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Finsinger W, Tinner W, Van der Knapp WO, Ammann B (2006) The expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) in the southern Alps: a key for understanding its early Holocene history in Europe? Quat Sci Rev 25:612–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gale R, Cutler D (2000) Plants in Archaeology: identification manual of vegetative plant materials used in Europe and the southern Mediterranean to c. 1500. Westbury, OtleyGoogle Scholar
  45. Giraudi C, Magny M, Zanchetta G, Drysdale RN (2011) The Holocene climatic evolution of Mediterranean Italy: a review of the continental geological data. Holocene 21:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grimm EC (1991–2011) Tilia v1.7.16. Illinois State Museum, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoogerduijn Strating EH, Piccardo GB, Rampone E, Scambelluri M, Vissers RLM (1990) The structure and petrology of the erro-tobbio peridotite, Voltri Massif, Ligurian Alps. Guidebook for a two-day-excursion with emphasis on processes in the upper mantle (Voltri Massif, June 26–28, 1989). Ofioliti 15:119–184Google Scholar
  48. Huntley B (1993) Rapid Early-Holocene migration and high abundance of hazel (Corylus avellana L.): alternative hypotheses. In: Chambers FM (ed) Climatic change and human impact on the landscape. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huntley B, Bartlein PJ, Prentice IC (1989) Climatic control of the distribution and abundance of beech (Fagus L.) in Europe and North America. J Biogeogr 16:551–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jalut G, Dedoubat JJ, Fontugne M, Otto T (2009) Holocene circum-Mediterranean vegetation changes: climate forcing and human impact. Quat Int 200:4–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Juggins S (2003) C2 user guide. Software for ecological and palaeoecological data analysis and visualisation. University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon TyneGoogle Scholar
  52. Keller F, Lischke H, Mathis T, Möhl A, Wick L, Ammann B, Kienast F (2002) Effects of climate, fire, and humans on forest dynamics: forest simulations compared to the palaeological record. Ecol Model 152:109–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lauterbach S, Chapron E, Brauer A, Hüls M, Gilli A, Arnaud F, Piccin A, Nomade J, Desmet M, Von Grafenstein U, DecLakes Participants (2012) A sedimentary record of Holocene surface runoff events and earthquake activity from Lake Iseo (Southern Alps, Italy). Holocene 22:749–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lowe JJ (1982) Three Flandrian pollen profiles from the Teith valley, Perthshire, Scotland: II, analysis of deteriorated pollen. New Phytol 90:371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lowe JJ (1992) Lateglacial and early Holocene lake sediments from the northern Apennines, Italy—pollen stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating. Boreas 21:193–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lowe JJ, Branch N, Watson C (1994a) The chronology of human disturbance of the vegetation of the northern Apennines during the Holocene. In: Biagi P, Nandris J (eds) Highland zone exploitation in southern Europe. Museo Civico Di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, pp 171–189Google Scholar
  57. Lowe JJ, Davite C, Moreno D, Maggi R (1994b) Holocene pollen stratigraphy and human interference in the woodlands of the northern Apennines, Italy. Holocene 4:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Maggi R (ed) (1990) Archeologia dell’Appennino Ligure gli scavi del Castellaro di Uscio: un insediamento di crinale occupato dal Neolitico alla conquista Romana. Collezione di Monografie Preistoriche ed Archeologiche 8. Instituto Internazionale di Studi Liguri, BordigheraGoogle Scholar
  59. Maggi R (ed) (1997) Arene Candide: a functional and environmental assessment of the Holocene sequence. Il Calamo, RomaGoogle Scholar
  60. Maggi R (1999) Coasts and uplands in Liguria and Northern Tuscany from the Mesolithic to the Bronze Age. In: Tykot RH, Morter J, Robb JE (eds) Social dynamics of the prehistoric central Mediterranean. Accordia Research Institute, London, pp 47–65Google Scholar
  61. Maggi R (2004) I monti sun eggi: the making of the Ligurian landscape in prehistory. In: Balzaretti R, Pearce M, Watkins C (eds) Ligurian landscapes: studies on archaeology, geography and history. Accordia Research Institute, London, pp 71–82Google Scholar
  62. Maggi R, Nisbet R (1991) Prehistoric pastoralism in Liguria. Rivista di Studi Liguri 56:265–297Google Scholar
  63. Maggi R, Pearce M (2005) Mid fourth-millenium copper mining in Liguria, north-west Italy: the earliest known copper mines in Western Europe. Antiquity 79:66–77Google Scholar
  64. Maggi R, Pearce M (2010) Changing subsistence structures and the origins of mining in the Ligurian Apennine Mountains, in mining in European history and its impact on environment and human societies, proceedings for the 1st mining in European history-conference of the SFB-HIMAT (12–15 November 2009), Innsbruck University Press, pp 283–287Google Scholar
  65. Magny M, Ruffaldi P (1995) Younger Dryas and early Holocene lake-level fluctuations in the Jura mountains, France. Boreas 24:155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Magny M, Bégeot C, Guiot J, Peyron O (2003) Contrasting patterns of hydrological changes in Europe in response to Holocene climate cooling phases. Quat Sci Rev 22:1,589–1,596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Magny M, De Beaulieu J-L, Drescher-Schneider R, Vannière B, Walter-Simonnet A-V, Miras Y, Bossuet G, Peyron O, Brugiapaglia E, Leroux A (2007) Holocene climate changes in the central Mediterranean as recorded by lake-level fluctuations at Lake Accesa (Tuscany, Italy). Quat Sci Rev 26:1,736–1,758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Magny M, Galop D, Bellintani P, Desmet M, Didier J, Haas J-H, Martinelli N, Pedrotti A, Scandolari R, Stock A, Vannière B (2009a) Late-Holocene climatic variability south of the Alps as recorded by lake-level fluctuations at Lake Ledro, Trentino, Italy. Holocene 19:575–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Magny M, Vannière B, Zanchetta G, Fouache E, Touchais G, Petrika L, Coussot C, Walter-Simonnet A-V, Arnaud F (2009b) Possible complexity of the climatic event around 4300–3800 cal. b.p. in the central and western Mediterranean. Holocene 19:823–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Magri D (1999) Late-quaternary vegetation history at Lagaccione near Lago di Bolsena (central Italy). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 106:171–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Magri D, Vendramin GG, Comps B, Dupanloup I, Geburek T, Gömöry D, Latalowa M, Litt T, Paule L, Roure J-M, Tantau I, Van der Knaap WO, Petit RJ, De Beaulieu J-L (2006) A new scenario for the quaternary history of European beech populations: palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequences. New Phytol 171:199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mayewski PA, Rohling EE, Stager JC, Karlen W, Maasch KA, Meeker LD, Meyerson A, Gasse F, Van Kreveld S, Holmgren K, Lee-Thorp J, Rosqvist G, Rack F, Staubwasser M, Schneider RR, Steig EJ (2004) Holocene climate variability. Quat Res 62:243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Melli P, Del Lucchese A (eds) (1987) Archeologia in Liguria III.1 Scavi e Scoperte 1982-86 Preistoria e Protostoria. Soprintendenza Archeologica della Liguria, GenovaGoogle Scholar
  74. Mercuri A-M, Sadori L, Uzquiano Ollero P (2011) Mediterranean and north-African cultural adaptations to mid-Holocene environmental and climatic changes. Holocene 21:189–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moore PD, Webb JA, Collinson ME (1991) Pollen analysis. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  76. Nisbet R (1997) Arene Candide: charcoal remains and prehistoric woodland use. In: Maggi R (ed) Arene Candide: a functional and environmental assessment of the Holocene sequence. Il Calamo, Roma, pp 103–112Google Scholar
  77. Parker AG, Goudie AS, Anderson DE, Robinson MA, Bonsall C (2002) A review of the mid-Holocene elm decline in the British Isles. Prog Phys Geogr 26:1–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peyron O, Goring S, Dormoy I, Kotthoff U, Pross J, De Beaulieu J-L, Drescher-Schneider R, Vannière B, Magny M (2011) Holocene seasonality changes in the central Mediterranean region reconstructed from the pollen sequences of Lake Accesa (Italy) and Tenaghi Philippon (Greece). Holocene 21:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reille M (1992) Pollen et spores D’Europe et D’Afrique du Nord. Laboratoire de Botanique Historique et Palynologie, MarseilleGoogle Scholar
  80. Reimer PJ, Baille MGL, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Bertrand CJH, Blackwell PG, Buck CE, Burr GS, Cutler KB, Damon PE, Edwards RL, Fairbanks RG, Friedrich M, Guilderson TP, Hogg AG, Hughen KA, Kromer B, McCormac G, Manning S, Bronk Ramsey C, Reimer RW, Remelle S, Southon JR, Stuiver M, Talamo S, Taylor FW, Van der Plicht J, Weyhenmeyer CE (2004) IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0–26 cal kyr b.p. Radiocarbon 46:1,029–1,058Google Scholar
  81. Renssen H, Seppä H, Heiri O, Roche DM, Goosse H, Fichefet T (2009) The spatial and temporal complexity of the Holocene thermal maximum. Nat Geosci 2:411–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Renssen H, Seppä H, Crosta X, Goosse H, Roche DM (2012) Global characterization of the Holocene thermal maximum. Quat Sci Rev 48:7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Roberts N, Jones MD, Benkaddour A, Eastwood WJ, Filippi ML, Frogley MR, Lamb HF, Leng MJ, Reed JM, Stein M, Stevens L, Valero-Garcés V, Zanchetta G (2008) Stable isotope records of Late quaternary climate and hydrology from Mediterranean lakes: the ISOMED synthesis. Quat Sci Rev 27:2,426–2,441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roberts N, Brayshaw N, Kuzucuoğlu C, Perez R, Sadori L (2011) The mid-Holocene climatic transition in the Mediterranean: causes and consequences. Holocene 21:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rowley-Conwy P (1997) The animal bones from Arene Candide (Holocene sequence): final report. In: Maggi R (ed) Arene Candide: a functional and environmental assessment of the Holocene sequence. Il Calamo, Roma, pp 153–279Google Scholar
  86. Sadori L, Giraudi C, Petitti P, Ramrath A (2004) Human impact at Lago di Mezzano (central Italy) during the Bronze Age: a multidisciplinary approach. Quat Int 113:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sadori L, Jahns S, Peyron O (2011) Mid-Holocene vegetation history of the central Mediterranean. Holocene 21:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schneider R (1985) Palynologie research in the southern and southeastern Alps between Torino and Trieste—a review of investigations concerning the last 15000 years. Diss Bot 87:83–103Google Scholar
  89. Schweingruber FH (1978) Microscopic wood anatomy. Fluck-Wirth, TeufenGoogle Scholar
  90. Stace C (1997) New flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  91. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ (1986) A computer program for radiocarbon age calculation. Radiocarbon 28:1,022–1,030Google Scholar
  92. Tallantire PA (2002) The Early-Holocene spread of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) in Europe north and west of the Alps: an ecological hypothesis. Holocene 12:81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tessier L, De Beaulieu J-L, Couteaux M, Edouard J-L, Ponel P, Rolando C, Thinon M, Thomas A, Tobolski K (1993) Holocene palaeoenvironments at the timberline in the French Alps—a multidisciplinary approach. Boreas 22:244–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tinner W, Conedera M, Gobet E, Hubschmid P, Wehrli M, Ammann B (2000) A palaeoecological attempt to classify fire sensitivity of trees in the southern Alps. Holocene 10:565–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tinner W, Conedera M, Ammann B, Lotter AF (2005) Fire ecology north and south of the Alps since the last Ice Age. Holocene 15:1,214–1,226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Troels-Smith J (1955) Karakterisering af løse jordater (Characterisation of unconsolidated sediments). Dan Geol Unders 4:38–73Google Scholar
  97. UNESCO-FAO (1969) Ecological study of the Mediterranean zone, vegetation map of the Mediterranean zone and explanatory notes. UNESCOGoogle Scholar
  98. Valsecchi V, Tinner W (2010) Vegetation responses to climatic variability in the Swiss Southern Alps during the Misox event at the early-mid Holocene transition. J Quat Sci 25:1,248–1,258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Valsecchi V, Finsinger W, Tinner W, Ammann B (2008) Testing the influence of climate, human impact and fire on the Holocene population expansion of Fagus sylvatica in the southern Prealps (Italy). Holocene 18:603–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vescovi E, Kaltenreider P, Tinner W (2010) Late-glacial and Holocene vegetation history of Pavullo nel Frignano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 160:32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walker DS (1960) The Mediterranean lands. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  102. Watson C (1996) The vegetational history of the northern Apennines, Italy: information from three new sequences and a review of regional vegetational changes. J Biogeogr 23:805–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Watts WA, Allen JRM, Huntley B, Fritz SC (1996) Vegetation history and climate of the last 15,000 years at Laghi di Monticchio, southern Italy. Quat Sci Rev 15:113–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wick L (1994) Vegetation development and human impact at the forest limit: palaeoecological studies in the Splugen Pass area (northern Italy). In: Biagi P, Nandris J (eds) Highland zone exploitation in southern Europe. Museo Civico Di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, pp 123–132Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental Science and Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ReadingReadingUK

Personalised recommendations