Journal of Nonlinear Science

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 929–978

# A Geometric Theory of Nonlinear Morphoelastic Shells

• Arzhang Angoshtari
• Alain Goriely
• Arash Yavari
Article

## Abstract

Many thin three-dimensional elastic bodies can be reduced to elastic shells: two-dimensional elastic bodies whose reference shape is not necessarily flat. More generally, morphoelastic shells are elastic shells that can remodel and grow in time. These idealized objects are suitable models for many physical, engineering, and biological systems. Here, we formulate a general geometric theory of nonlinear morphoelastic shells that describes both the evolution of the body shape, viewed as an orientable surface, as well as its intrinsic material properties such as its reference curvatures. In this geometric theory, bulk growth is modeled using an evolving referential configuration for the shell, the so-called material manifold. Geometric quantities attached to the surface, such as the first and second fundamental forms, are obtained from the metric of the three-dimensional body and its evolution. The governing dynamical equations for the body are obtained from variational consideration by assuming that both fundamental forms on the material manifold are dynamical variables in a Lagrangian field theory. In the case where growth can be modeled by a Rayleigh potential, we also obtain the governing equations for growth in the form of kinetic equations coupling the evolution of the first and the second fundamental forms with the state of stress of the shell. We apply these ideas to obtain stress-free growth fields of a planar sheet, the time evolution of a morphoelastic circular cylindrical shell subject to time-dependent internal pressure, and the residual stress of a morphoelastic planar circular shell.

## Keywords

Bulk growth Morphoelasticity Shell Nonlinear elasticity Geometric mechanics Residual stress

## Mathematics Subject Classification

74Axx 74Fxx 74Lxx

## Notes

### Acknowledgments

SS was supported by a Fulbright Grant. AG is a Wolfson/Royal Society Merit Award Holder and acknowledges support from a Reintegration Grant under EC Framework VII. We thank M.F. Shojaei for his help with some of the numerical examples. This research was partially supported by AFOSR – Grant No. FA9550-12-1-0290 and NSF—Grant No. CMMI 1042559 and CMMI 1130856.

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## Authors and Affiliations

• 1
• Arzhang Angoshtari
• 2
• Alain Goriely
• 3
• Arash Yavari
• 1
• 4
Email author
1. 1.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringThe George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
3. 3.Mathematical InstituteUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
4. 4.The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA