We rigorously prove results on spiky patterns for the Gierer–Meinhardt system (Kybernetik (Berlin) 12:30–39, 1972) with a jump discontinuity in the diffusion coefficient of the inhibitor. Using numerical computations in combination with a Turing-type instability analysis, this system has been investigated by Benson, Maini, and Sherratt (Math. Comput. Model. 17:29–34, 1993a; Bull. Math. Biol. 55:365–384, 1993b; IMA J. Math. Appl. Med. Biol. 9:197–213, 1992).
Firstly, we show the existence of an interior spike located away from the jump discontinuity, deriving a necessary condition for the position of the spike. In particular, we show that the spike is located in one-and-only-one of the two subintervals created by the jump discontinuity of the inhibitor diffusivity. This localization principle for a spike is a new effect which does not occur for homogeneous diffusion coefficients. Further, we show that this interior spike is stable.
Secondly, we establish the existence of a spike whose distance from the jump discontinuity is of the same order as its spatial extent. The existence of such a spike near the jump discontinuity is the second new effect presented in this paper.
To derive these new effects in a mathematically rigorous way, we use analytical tools like Liapunov–Schmidt reduction and nonlocal eigenvalue problems which have been developed in our previous work (J. Nonlinear Sci. 11:415–458, 2001).
Finally, we confirm our results by numerical computations for the dynamical behavior of the system. We observe a moving spike which converges to a stationary spike located in the interior of one of the subintervals or near the jump discontinuity.
Pattern formation Discontinuous diffusion coefficients Steady states Stability
Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)
35B35 76E30 35B40 76E06
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