Phase-contrast MR angiography of peripheral arteries: technique and clinical application
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This articles describes Phase-Contrast-MRA (PC-MRA) techniques and their current clinical applications for peripheral arteries based on more than 250 clinical MRA studies performed at two institutions. PC-MRA depends on phase shifts caused by blood flow and thus this technique permits the use of coronal or sagittal slice orientations with large FOV's along the direction of the vessel of interest. Clinical applications focus on patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) describing the role and limitations of PC-MRA for the work-up of stenoses, occlusions, aneurysms, and postsurgical follow-up. Recommendations for clinical routine are provided. A combined MR angiographic approach with various MRA techniques depending on the vessel segment to be imaged, PC-flow velocity measurements, and high-resolution scans of the vessel wall may turn out to be diagnostically effective and provide a comprehensive test for PAOD within the near future.
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