Diagnosis of papillomas of the breast: value of magnetic resonance mammography in comparison with galactography
The aim of this study was evaluation of MRI alone and in combination with mammography and galactography in the diagnosis of intraductal papillomas. From 1994 to 1998, a total of 48 women presenting with pathologic mammary secretion underwent galactography and magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). Thirty-five patients aged 16–71 years (average age 46 years) subsequently underwent surgery or diagnostic puncture and the histologic findings were compared with the results of the radiologic examination. Histology revealed papillomas in 16 cases. In 6 of these patients, there was associated malignant degeneration. Malignancy without associated papilloma was observed in 3 cases. Galactography displayed a sensitivity of 94 % and a specificity of 79 % with five false-positive findings and one false-negative finding in the recognition of intraductal papillomas. Malignant processes were detected by mammography/galactography in only one instance. Magnetic resonance mammography visualized pathologic contrast medium uptake in 8 of 9 cases of malignant disease (sensitivity 89 %). One patient with in situ ductal carcinoma escaped detection with MRM. Papillomas showed no or below-the-threshold-lying contrast uptakes with no specific sign suggestive of papilloma. Galactography in combination with mammography remains the primary diagnostic procedure in cases of pathologic mammary secretion or suspected papilloma. The addition of MRI permits exclusion of malignant disease with a high degree of certainty; thus, expectant management in individual cases with negative findings appears justified.
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